Prace Geograficzne, z. 103

Redaktor: Chełmicki W.
Rok wydania: 1998
Język publikacji: angielski

ISSN 1644-3586

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Foreword
Autor: Wojciech Chełmicki
Strony: 11-14
Development of settlement and farming from the Neolithic period to date in the marginal zone of the Carpathian Foothills between the Raba and Uszwica Rivers
Autor: Małgorzata Pietrzak
Strony: 15-44
Summary - read more..
Based on archaeological materials and historical documents an attempt was made to characterize the settlement and agriculture in the Carpathian Foothills. Three phases of intense activity were identified in the development of prehistoric settlement: early Neolithic, bronze/iron ages and the late Roman period. Starting from the early Middle Ages (10th century) to 1500 AD the Carpathian Foothills were entirely colonized. During that time a basic network of human settlement and transportation roads was formed along with the current arable land patterns. A relatively high density of population and the high percentage of arable land in the total land use structure over the entire historical period of exploration of this area indicates the adaptation of man to the existing environmental conditions and the local natural habitats' significant tolerance to human pressure.
Types of landslides and their geomorphological role in The Carpathian Foothills marginal zone between the Raba and Uszwica rivers
Autor: Anna Michno
Strony: 45-60
Summary - read more..
The paper presents a detailed study of the distribution and present-day transformation of landslides in the Carpathian Foothills marginal zone between the Raba and Uszwica rivers. The result of this study is a typology of landslides and landslide-creep forms based on their morphology, size and present-day activity. The spatial distribution of identified types of forms allowed the morphological role of gravity-driven processes in the modelling of the Carpathian Foothills to be determined.
Defining conditions for aeolian circulation of Matter as pollution carrier in the marginal zone of the Carpathian Foothills
Autor: Bogdana Izmaiłow
Strony: 61-82
Summary - read more..
Analysis of the diversity of conditions of the aeolian circulation of pollutants transported by mineral and organic particles and snow was carried out over the Carpathian Foothills marginal zone between the Raba and Uszwica Rivers. It was based on the results of studies applying to the conditions, effects and course of airborne deflation, transport and deposition of the above mentioned types of material and on the characteristics of selected elements of the local environment. Displacement of mineral and organic material and snow by wind may occur in various parts of the area and at different seasons of the year, depending on land use, inclination and exposure, changes of wind directions and velocities, and the condition of the soil. Only the transport of suspended mineral dust and organic matter from forests occurs all year long and at all wind velocities. Organic matter from meadows is involved in the airborne transport only during the snowless season and from fields only during the vegetation season. Displacement of mineral particles and snow in the near-ground layers of the air requires the wind velocity to reach ł5 m s-1. Mineral material from the fields is supplied from ploughed land only during the postvegetation period . To classify the periods of potential occurrence of aeolian processes, the number of occurrences of windward and leeward orientation of areas with different use and exposure was analyzed. Comparison of their durations led to the designation of areas with conditions particularly favourable to deflation, deposition or equally-favourable to both processes. Areas with conditions favourable to the removal or accumulation of material occupy a similar surface but they seldom form concentrated clusters. This is a result of the limited range of matter circulation, which mainly takes place within areas located between the valleys. For this reason also, matter exchange between the marginal zone of the Foothills and the adjacent territories is limited.
Transport of dissolved and suspended matter in small catchments of the Wieliczka Foothills near Łazy
Autorzy: Kazimierz Krzemień, Krzysztof Sobiecki
Strony: 83-100
Summary - read more..
This paper presents the diversity and seasonal variability of the transport of dissolved and suspended matter in selected catchments of the Wieliczka Foothills (part of the Carpathian Foothills). Based on four years of research the significant influence of the relief on the limited displacement of clastic material from summits to stream beds was observed. A domination of chemical over mechanical denudation was documented.
Annual and seasonal course of precipitation acidity and its relation to the direction of advecting airmasses in The Carpathian Foothills near Bochnia
Autorzy: Wojciech Chełmicki, Mariusz Klimek
Strony: 101-112
Summary - read more..
Precipitation acidity for the area situated close to the highly polluted industrial centres of southern Poland was analysed for the period 1991-1996. It was found that in 1991-1996 there was a substantial decline in precipitation acidity with the minimum in 1994, which coincided with minimum emissions of SO2 and solid particles (ashes) by the Nowa Huta industrial complex (30 km WNW from the research area). Seasonal fluctuations of pH were well expressed with the lower values in winter half-years and the higher ones in the the summer half-years. The direction of advecting airmasses did not significantly influence the pH of daily totals of precipitation. The reason for this might be the general large-scale atmospheric pollution of southern Poland which causes acidification of precipitation independent of the direction of advecting air-masses. It is possible that the direction does influence pH of separate rainfall events but is not easily detected in daily totals which are the result of a mixture of separate rainfall events.
The influence of the synoptic situations on the concentration of heavy metals in precipitation water and the extent of their deposition at Łazy in The Carpathian Foothills
Autor: Mirosław Żelazny
Strony: 113-124
Summary - read more..
Atmospheric pollution diffuses and returns to the earth's surface in a variety of forms. Weather conditions greatly influence the spread of pollution. The purpose of this paper is to identify the influence of the synoptic situation on the concentration and load of heavy metals advecting with precipitation. In the period stretching from 1 April 1994 to 31 March 1995, daily precipitation totals were collected at the Łazy Weather Station in the Wieliczka Foothills and the concentration of heavy metals (zinc, lead, cadmium, copper and manganese) measured. The relevant synoptic situation was determined for each day on which rainfall has occurred. A comparison of mean metal concentration and deposition with the synoptic situation shows the influence of barimetric situations (cyclonal and anticyclonal) on the concentration and load of heavy metals in precipitation. The extent of deposition of heavy metals is heavily dependent on synoptic situations with passing frontal systems.
Soil cover in the marginal zone of The Carpathian Foothills between the raba and uszwica rivers
Autorzy: Stefan Skiba, Marek Drewnik, Mariusz Klimek, Rafał Szmuc
Strony: 125-136
Summary - read more..
The soils of the Carpathian Foothills formed of loess-like formations are described. In the soil cover Haplic Luvisols and Stagnic Luvisols prevail. Locally and only on the strongly weathered slopes Cambic Luvisols occur. At the foots of the slopes and in the valley bottoms Eutric-Cambic Fluvisols occur and locally in the hollows Eutric Gleysols can be found. The results of research on the heavy metal content and soil resistance to acidification and alkalisation are presented.
Spatial pattern of 137cs distribution in soil in the marginal zone of The Carpathian Foothills between the valleys of Raba and Uszwica
Autorzy: Wojciech Chełmicki, Mariusz Klimek, Kazimierz Krzemień
Strony: 137-146
Summary - read more..
The content of radioactive 137Cs in soils was measured in the northern edge of the Carpathian Foothills and the neighbouring fragment of the Sandomierz Basin; between the valleys of the Raba and Uszwica rivers. To compensate for other radioactive fallout factors potentially affecting the spatial distribution of 137Cs, the sites that were chosen for sampling represented similar physical-geographical conditions. These were locally flat areas: hilltops or plains used as pasturelands, meadows, orchards or barren lands with undisturbed soil profiles. In spite of that the spatial pattern of 137Cs distribution showed large differentiation of caesium content with the highest values detected in the western part of the area. The reason for this is probably the larger radioactive fallout connected with atmospheric precipitation on the orographically exposed hills above the Raba valley.
Nitrate contamination of shallow groundwater in the Carpathian Foothills (Southern Poland)
Autorzy: Jill Ellis, Jane Dottridge
Strony: 147-158
Summary - read more..
This study, based on a rural area in the Carpathian Foothills, aimed to assess the extent of contamination to a shallow aquifer by nitrates. The aquifer is composed of flysch and molasse sediments deposited during the Alpine orogeny, dominantly fine to medium grained sandstones. Nearly all the sediments are folded, faulted or deformed. This makes the hydrogeology very complicated since there is a lack of continuity and hydraulic connectivity, but the aquifer has been simplified to a single unit approximately 20 m thick. Fine-grained loess overlies the flysch and molasse deposits. This wind blown deposit which was later reworked sub-aqueously, varies in thickness between zero and 15 m. The hydraulic conductivity of the loess is low, so it acts as a confining layer. The range in nitrate content varied from to zero to almost 90 mg l-1. The WHO limit is 50 mg l-1. Nitrate can cause methemoglobinemia in babies and has been linked to stomach cancer. The highest nitrate concentrations were found in samples taken from wells situated in relatively high terrain. These areas have the lowest loess cover which protects the aquifer from contaminants. The nitrate concentration may also relate to the proximity to septic tanks. In most areas there are no sewage pipes and when a septic tank is placed up flow of a well there is high potential for contamination. Currently the farming practices in Southern Poland are non-intensive. However Poland is developing very rapidly and practices may change. The potential for contamination by pesticides and other agro-chemicals must be assessed. Through investigating the vulnerability of the aquifer to nitrate contamination, future problems can be predicted and possibly prevented. A vulnerability assessment on this area concluded that the aquifer has very little protection from contaminants where there is no loess cover. Where the aquifer is confined, the aquifer is not very vulnerable to contamination. Recommendations include that farming practices take account of the need to protect drinking water sources and that where septic tanks are the source of pollution, either the tank or the well is re-sited, or an alternative supply is found.
A hydrogeological assessment of the Łężkowice brine pumping station near Bochnia (The Carpathian Foothills)
Autor: Gregory M. Hall
Strony: 159-178
Summary - read more..
In 1991 the Łężkowice brine pumping station closed after 23 years activity, leaving soil and alluvial groundwater heavily contaminated with salt. Piezometry and observations on site suggest that this saline groundwater is discharging directly into the nearby river Raba, an important source of drinking water. By studying trends in chloride concentration and water levels, two possible salt sources were identified on the site. The first is residual salt dissolved from the soil surface and unsaturated zone and carried to the groundwater during recharge events. The second is most active at low groundwater levels and is interpreted as a connection to a source of brine beneath the alluvial cover. Groundwater flow and chloride transport modelling were used to provide a quantitative estimate of saline discharge. Because of the limited availability of model data, many of the parameters used were estimated. In order to validate the model's results, all available data sets were used for calibration. Daily chloride flux measurements made in the Raba river were analysed using a method similar to the baseflow separation of hydrographs in order to give an estimate of groundwater discharge. Short term transient modelling during flood periods was also found to provide a useful calibration and highlighted possible inaccuracies in the initial hydraulic conductivities used. Short term modelling demonstrates that, although the salt supplied to the river by groundwater discharge from the site is only a small percentage of the total load, timing of this discharge is critical. Most of the groundwater discharge occurs at low flow when the river is most vulnerable. When river flows are high and able to accept large quantities of salt, groundwater discharge halts completely. The study concluded that saline groundwater discharge from the site is not a problem at present but may increase in future as the site degrades and underground caverns developed during mining begin to collapse. A ground conductivity survey is suggested as a good method of identifying salt sources should a more detailed study be required.
Forest communities and their transformations in the marginal zone of The Carpathian Foothills
Autor: Alina Stachurska
Strony: 179-188
Summary - read more..
The paper presents the basic results of phytosociological studies carried out in the north-eastern part of the Wieliczka Foothills (part of the Carpathian Foothills). The basic forest communities of the investigated area (alder-ash carrs, oak-hornbeam forests, beech forests, mixed oak-pine forests and fir forests), identified using numerical classification, are characterized. Particular attention is focused on transformations in the communities described. The main causes of observed alterations are the inadequate forest management procedures leading to an impoverishment of the floral composition, decline of plant associations' character species and the induced expansion of Carex brizoides and Rubus hirtus.