Prace Geograficzne, z. 108

Redaktor: Obrębska-Starkel B.
Rok wydania: 2000
Język publikacji: angielski

ISSN 1644-3586

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Preface
Autor: Barbara Obrębska-Starkel
Strony: 9-10
Snow, temperature and precipitation conditions of winters in Poznań in relation to the Wolf numbers
Autor: Ewa Bednorz
Strony: 13-18
Summary - read more..
This study was based on daily data concerning the occurrence of snow cover, temperature and precipitation during winter months in Poznań over the period 1920-1990. The Pearson's correlation coefficients between aforementioned parameters and following year number were calculated. The tendency of changes appeared to be statistically significant only in a few cases. Furthermore, cyclic fluctuations of snow cover occurrence were found out, employing the Fourier's method. Finally, the relationships between the number of days with snow cover, temperature, precipitation and Wolf numbers were determined using the Pearson's correlation coefficient.
The effect of weather factors on fluctuations of grain prices in the Czech Lands in the 16th-18th centuries
Autor: Rudolf Brázdil, Michaela Durďáková
Strony: 19-25
Summary - read more..
Price series of rye, wheat, barley and oats are analysed for Brno, Dačice and Olomouc for the 16th-18th centuries. For 61 selected years with extremely high prices the possible effect of weather and further factors on the price is evaluated. In most cases (67%) the high price of grains is given by the bad harvest of the given or the preceding year, conditioned by adverse weather. The so-called hungry years 1770-1772 as the last case of famine in the Czech Lands are characterised in a detail way.
The era of Mongol expansion
Autor: Neville Brown
Strony: 27-30
Summary - read more..
The singular Mongol expansion of the 13th century was initiated under the influence of a complex process of climate change: the gist being that a long tendency towards more warmth and moisture was giving way to cooler, drier conditions. The progress and ultimate extent of the expansion were determined considerably by climate change, recent or on-going, at least in the Far East and Near East. In Mesopotamia Ťclimate changeť includes earthquake frequency for our purposes here.
Perception of climate from the 15th century up to nowadays
Autor: Tanja Cegnar
Strony: 31-34
Summary - read more..
An overview of perception of climate and early records about climate from the 15th century up to nowadays is presented. A special attention is paid to the awareness of the influence of climate and weather on the everyday activities and on human beings and other living organisms.
Bioclimatic diversity of the regions of Ukraine (methods, results, recommendations)
Autor: Georgie S. Georgiev
Strony: 35-40
Summary - read more..
The values of bioclimatic indices for average multiyear data: ITEveg. and ITEan., IGDP, Iarid. and Ibcc - for quick estimation of conditions development of vegetation cover from 19th century till now in different regions of Ukraine have been used. Average multiyear values of indices as criteria of boundaries of natural zones - Forest and Steppe have been determined. The maps and tables of indices distribution demonstrate favourable hydrological and thermal conditions of the regions of Ukraine and their variability, particularly calculated by average multiyear meteorological data.
The construction of awareness: educational images of weather and climate from textbook to the internet
Autor: Roberto Muffoletto, Anita Bokwa
Strony: 41-48
Summary - read more..
Image, if used correctly, can change the viewer's understanding of a phenomenon at hand. The development of concepts concerning weather and climate was accompanied by the advancement of their images and representations. Weather and climate images can play an important role in the construction of social awareness of such phenomena as current climate change, but their correct perception demands a previously established framework of knowledge related to both weather/climate and technology. Therefore broader usage of weather/climate images in education is of great importance.
An impact of climate in different scales (exemplified by multi-annual changes in ecoclimate of forest communities)
Autor: Barbara Obrębska-Starkel
Strony: 49-55
Summary - read more..
Based on multi-year studies the author presents effects of various human impacts on the natural environment of the Polish Carpathians (deforestation, reservoir constructing etc.) and she evaluates a rate and magnitude of observed climatic changes. She emphasises the scope of information to be stored in data bases that is needed for such studies.
The general knowledge and understanding of some climatological phenomena
Autor: Janusz Olejnik, Andrzej Kędziora, Frank Eulenstein, Damian Józefczyk
Strony: 57-64
Summary - read more..
The group of three hundred young people (students of the last year of secondary schools) were examined. A specially prepared test including questions about some fundamental climatological and meteorological phenomena was used. On the basis of the exam results, some conclusions about perception of chosen climatological processes were drawn. Misinterpretation of some climatological phenomena is usually caused by wrong description, which can be found in many books and articles. Wrong (or with mistakes) explanations of particular climatological processes which have been found in some international books and articles, were described and analysed in this paper.
Climatic and human-related factors in the development of relief (based on historical documents pertaining to the marginal zone of the Carpathian Foothills)
Autor: Małgorzata Pietrzak
Strony: 65-72
Summary - read more..
The study was carried out in the Carpathian Foothills and aimed to assess the effects of both the climatic change and human activity on the agricultural landscape. An array of methods applied included ground relief mapping, as well as valley deposit and historical document analyses. As a result the magnitude of agricultural landscape transformations was assessed and periods of intensified geomorphic processes identified. It was found that at the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries foothill slopes developed rapidly which manifested itself in intensive build-up of deluvial and proluvial material in the valley bottoms. During the little Ice Age, the expansion of arable land at the cost of woodland exposed the area of study to sheet-wash, rill erosion and gullying.
Intensity of ultraviolet and total solar radiation in Łódź
Autor: Agnieszka Podstawczyńska-Bienias
Strony: 73-80
Summary - read more..
The paper presents the analysis of measurements of UV (290-400 nm) and total solar radiation (303-2800 nm) values in Łódź in the period 1997-1999. The daily values of UV and total radiation are highly correlated with a general linear relation. The UV daily values constituted on average 4.2% of total daily radiation. The high values of ratio Iuv/It (7%) occurred in cloudy days while the total irradiance decreased with increasing cloudiness. This shows that the clouds absorb more in near infra-red than UV region of the solar spectrum.
Anthropogenic climate change - a reason for concern since the 18th century and earlier
Autor: Hans von Storch, Nico Stehr
Strony: 81-86
Summary - read more..
Since about 10 years the concept of anthropogenic climate change has left academic circles and become a major public concern. Some people consider "global warming" as the major environmental threat of the planet. Even though mostly considered a novel threat, a look into history tells us that it is not, at least not in European thinking. Climate change, due to natural and anthropogenic reasons has often been discussed from classical times to the time of renaissance. Environmental change including climate change was seen by some as a biblical mandate, to "complete the Creation". In line with this view, the prospect of climate change was considered as a promising challenge in more modern times. Only since the middle of the 20th century, anthropogenic climate change became a menacing prospect. The concept of anthropogenic climate change seems to be deeply embedded in popular thinking, at least in Europe, which resurfaces every now and then after scientific discoveries. As such climate change research is bound to be a post-normal science. Of course, the present threat may be much more real than any of the historical predecessors, which turned out to be overestimated.
Climate and ponds since the Middle Ages
Autor: Maria Anna Szumiec, Danuta Augustyn
Strony: 87-92
Summary - read more..
The increasing demand for fish began in the Middle Ages caused by a religious rule of fish consumption during period of fasting. Introduction of the carp culture increased profits and promoted the development of the great fishpond centres in the southern and western parts of Poland where hydrologic, climatic and geological conditions were suitable for fishpond management. Changes in the pond surface area and carp production since centuries permit the drawing of some conclusions concerning the long-time humidity and thermal variations in the above region.
River runoff as an indicator of global climate change
Autor: Trahel Gerasim Vardanian
Strony: 93-98
Summary - read more..
The work introduces the analysis of the impact of possible climate change on river runoff in Armenia. For this reason, 10 river basins having different parameters and natural climatic conditions are selected. The natural runoff of these rivers is considerably disturbed (in some cases it is restored). In those basins average annual river runoff, precipitation and temperature are calculated. Multivariable correlation links have been established among the mentioned parameters. The present degree of runoff change and runoff changes expected in case of different versions of climate change have been evaluated. It's concluded, that in case of different versions of climate change river runoff will be reduced to 20% of the present one. However, it has not referred to the rest rivers in Armenia so far, as the role of local factors is very essential.
Influence of extremal heat waves on man
Autor: Krzysztof Błażejczyk
Strony: 101-108
Summary - read more..
Advections of subtropical air masses in Central Europe bring heat waves mainly during summer and also in spring and autumn. At summer heat waves the air temperature reaches up to 35-38oC. They effected the human organism both, the functioning of thermoregulation system as well as the human health and well being. The paper presents the results of thermophysiological and medical observations carried out during extremal heat waves in Poland in July 1989 and July 1994. They influenced the human heat balance and human health.
Extreme precipitation events in the Western Carpathians
Autor: Elżbieta Cebulak, Pavel Fasko, Milan Lapin, Pavel Stastný
Strony: 117-124
Summary - read more..
More than 500 precipitation stations in the Upper Vistula Basin in the southern part of Poland and more than 700 precipitation stations in Slovakia have been in the operation each year since 1949. This was the main reason for the analysis of all measured daily precipitation totals 100 mm. The majority of these days and events were connected with the synoptic situation trough (B, Bp, Bc) or cyclone (C, Cv, Nc) in Central Europe. The analysis showed that the years without daily maximum total 100 mm have occurred only eight times in Poland and nine times in Slovakia (from 50).
Snow temperature measurement evaluation according to the automatic weather station at Chopok during Dec. 1999 - Mar. 2000
Autor: Oliver Bochníček
Strony: 109-116
Summary - read more..
The snow cover is studied in submitted contribution from the view of meteorological influences. It was shown that the most important factor which influences snow cover height and quality (assuming there's no new snow fall) is air temperature and accumulated heat (cold) inside the snow cover. As an indicator of air temperature effects on snow cover, snow temperature was taken. Our effort was to indicate changes in snow cover caused by meteorological influence and propose automatic measurements with 24 h regime and data transfer to evaluation centre.
Monitoring and dynamics of climatic extremes
Autor: Mihail Daradur, Maria I. Nedealkova
Strony: 125-130
Summary - read more..
The long-term dynamics of climatic extremes is considered one of the necessary elements for monitoring the climatic system. A number of observations are made by the authors who explain the problem of tracing the evolution of thea modern climate. The dynamics of extreme precipitation is the most changeable element of the climatic system. The shifting from predictions based on estimations of the changes in climate to more general probability measures is justified as the most adequate means for obtaining reliable scientific information about climatic fluctuations.
Maximum daily sums of precipitation in Slovakia in the second half of the 20th century
Autor: Pavel Fasko, Milan Lapin, Pavel Stastný, Jozef Vivoda
Strony: 131-138
Summary - read more..
Increasing number of natural disasters caused by heavy rains and exceptional rain intensities occurred in Slovakia initiated the analysis of maximum daily precipitation totals. About 600 precipitation stations in Slovakia have sufficiently reliable time series of maximum daily precipitation totals in the 1950-1999 period.
Maximum precipitation in agrometeorological observatory at Felin in the second half of the 20th century
Autor: Henryk Galant, Alicja Węgrzyn
Strony: 139-142
Summary - read more..
In the paper the statistical characteristics of monthly and annual sums of atmospheric precipitation were presented. Standard deviation, variation coefficient, means, median, kurtosis coefficient and skewness coefficient were calculated. The linear trend was determined too, which shows minimal decrease of annual sums of atmospheric precipitation over the years 1951-1999. The statistical analysis of collected materials confirms great differences of precipitation in particular months and years of the analysed period.
Changes of climate extremes - fact or fiction?
Autor: Raino Heino
Strony: 143-147
Summary - read more..
A review has been made on the recent work on climatic extremes. Special emphasis is given for recent Nordic studies of extremes. Changes in maximum and minimum temperatures follow, in broad terms, the corresponding well-documented mean temperature changes. Minimum temperatures, however, have increased more than maximum temperatures, although both have increased. As a result, the diurnal temperature range has mostly decreased during the present century. Two extreme-related precipitation characteristics, the annual maximum daily precipitation and the number of days with precipitation > 10 mm, show no major trends or changes in their interannual variability.
Hot and cold summers in Central Europe (1871-1990)
Autor: Eugeniusz Filipiuk, Bogusław M. Kaszewski
Strony: 149-154
Summary - read more..
The paper uses data from 11 stations in Central Europe from the period of 1871-1990. To determine hot, warm, cold and very cold summers the method of standardised deviations from long-term mean temperature is applied. Most very cold summers occurred before 1930, while most hot summers between 1946 and 1952. Four distinct periods differing in the frequency of occurrence of particular summer seasons are distinguished.
Water vapor and air temperature on days with thunderstorm in Poznań
Autor: Leszek Kolendowicz
Strony: 155-158
Summary - read more..
To establish the relationship between different frequencies of thunderstorm occurrence in given years and diversity of humidity and air temperature there were used data concerning the number of days with thunderstorm, average daily water vapor pressure and air temperature per day in Poznań from 1961 to 1990. Having distinguished years similar as far as the frequency of days with thunderstorm is concerned they were grouped with the help of the Ward method.
Scenarios of climatic extremes for Slovakia
Autor: Milan Lapin, Ingrid Damborská, Pavel Fasko, Marián Melo, Pavel Stastný
Strony: 159-170
Summary - read more..
Review of climatic extremes in Slovakia, more detailed elaboration of daily precipitation maxima and designed climate change scenarios for Slovakia are presented in the paper. Annual maxima of daily precipitation totals were elaborated on the basis of 557 stations in Slovakia in 1950-1999. Climatic scenarios have been prepared as baseline for 1901-1990 and scenarios of climate change for 2001-2100 (2090). Scenarios of variability and extremes change are considered as the most complex problem in this field.
Variability of the extremes in annual course of the monthly precipitation sums in Europe
Autor: Ewa Łupikasza
Strony: 171-179
Summary - read more..
In this article I discussed the variability of the concentration and the season of occurrence of maximum and minimum monthly precipitation sums between 1931-1960 and 1961-1990 based on 383 meteorological stations in Europe and Asia Minor. Furthermore, I have characterised changes in the annual course of precipitation between 1901-1930, 1931-1960 and 1961-1990, on the basis of the data from 11 selected stations representing different types of precipitation regime in Europe. I concluded, that the spatial distribution of the types of annual precipitation during the examined periods was not subjected to any radical changes. Nevertheless, in certain areas some alteration in particular characteristics of the precipitation distribution were observed.
Variability of potential water resources against the background of annual precipitation changeability
Autor: Bolesław Osuch
Strony: 181-192
Summary - read more..
The paper presents the variability of annual precipitation as a decisive factor influencing mean annual river discharge which characterizes surface water resources. The interpretation of variability trends and cyclicity in observed precipitation series for Cracow and Stróża are discussed. A comparison was made between mean annual river discharges' variability in Stróża and annual precipitation, considered as potential water resources in the Raba River drainage area.
Extreme winter/early-spring temperature anomalies in Central Europe
Autor: Joseph Otterman, Robert Atlas, Joseph Ardizzone, Thomas Brakke, Shu-Hsien Chou, Juan Carlos Jusem, Michael Glantz, Jeff Rogers, Yogesh Sud, Joel Susskind, David Starr, Joseph Terry
Strony: 193-200
Summary - read more..
Extreme seasonal fluctuations of the surface-air temperature characterize the climate of central Europe, 45-60oN. Temperature difference between warm 1990 and cold 1996 in the January-March period, persisting for more than two weeks at a time, amounted to 18oC for extensive areas. These anomalies in the surface-air temperature stem in the first place from differences in the low level flow from the eastern North-Atlantic: the value of the Index Ina of southwesterlies over the eastern North-Atlantic was 8.0 m s-1 in February 1990, but only 2.6 m s-1 in February 1996. The primary forcing by warm advection to positive anomalies in monthly mean surface temperature produced strong synoptic-scale uplift at the 700 mb level over some regions in Europe. The strong uplift contributed in 1990 to a much larger cloud-cover over central Europe, which reduced heat-loss to space (greenhouse effect). Thus, spring arrived earlier than usual in 1990, but later than usual in 1996.
Estimation of the methods of the extreme winters classification
Autor: Katarzyna Piotrowicz
Strony: 201-206
Summary - read more..
This study contains a verification of the methods for setting the dates of the beginnings and the endings of winters, and a methodological proposal for analysing winter temperatures. It was stated that limiting the definition of winter to just three months (December-February) does not reflect its true character, as it often happens that very low temperatures that have an impact on the conditions of the entire winter occur in November or in March, which are rarely recognised as winter months. Also the assessment of winter severity only on the basis of one criterion does not seem sufficient to the author, while the criteria employed in this study are complementary, as they define the quantitative intensity of the cold in various ways.
Air pressure extremes during the instrumental observation period in Warsaw
Autor: Zbigniew Ustrnul, Danuta Czekierda
Strony: 207-214
Summary - read more..
The study is based on the recently collected air pressure series originated from the Astronomical Observatory in Warsaw for the period 1826-1999. Analysis was performed in few steps concerning annual, monthly and daily pressure extremes. Special attention was paid to the 24 hour changes which have significant environmental and human aspects. Day-to-day differences over ą 15 and ą 20 hPa have been considered in more detail. Finally, the circulation causes of the high pressure changes are being analysed against the background of Grosswetterlagen.
Temporal variability of the frequency of extreme temperature occurrence in Poland on the example of Zakopane and Łódź
Autor: Joanna Wibig
Strony: 215-222
Summary - read more..
Daily values of minimum and maximum temperature in Zakopane and Łódź were analysed. The minimum temperature indices show the increasing tendencies evident also in the temporal variability of the distribution function. This tendency is probably connected with warmer winter seasons. There is no evidence of trend in maximum temperature series. In this case the lower values occurred at the beginning of present century and in the sixties and the seventies.