Prace Geograficzne, z. 113

Redaktor: Krzemień K.
Rok wydania: 2004
Język publikacji: francuski

ISSN 1644-3586

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Avant-propos
Autor: Kazimierz Krzemień
Strony: 9-10
Le rôle des processus morphogéniques contemporains dans le modelage de massif volcanique des Monts Dore (Massif central)
Autorzy: Kazimierz Krzemień, Krzysztof Sobiecki
Strony: 11-25
Summary - read more..
The paper presents results of the research on contemporary morphogenetic processes in the Monts Dore massif in the French Massif Central. Materials on the topic have been gradually collected and processed since 1985, thanks to direct cooperation between the Jagiellonian University's Institute of Geography and Spatial Economy and the Institute of Geography of the University Blaise Pascal of Clermont- Ferrand. The research area is a typical high-mountain geomorphologic system reaching the altitude of 1886 m and meeting the criteria of Alpine type mountains by C. Troll (1973). This paper aims to define the role of contemporary morphogenetic processes in shaping of high-mountain glacier-free les Monts Dore massif, located in the temperate zone and marine climate. Along a number of subsequent generations of old relief forms discerned in the topography of the Monts Dore, made stable by vegetation, there are some fresh ones, such as niches, chutes and rubble-flow spouts. The main groups of those forms originated at some stage of the Holocene age and have continued to develop until the present time. The morphodynamic role of certain processes may, however, increased as a result of human activity. At the crio-nival stage of the Monts Dore, the principal process is that of nivation processes linked to long-lasting patches of snow. Secondary are cryogenic processes and deflation. Pipkrakes (ice-fibres) plays a particularly important role. And finally, runoff in the form of rill-wash and rouble -wash plays a part too. In recent years, the role of all these natural processes increased due to a deterioration of the vegetation cover. Following geomorphologic mapping of the summit part of the massif it can be ascertained that the periglacial morphogenesis of the area during late Glacial Age was the most effective. Later, during the Holocene Age, the area was shaped by nivation and runoff. During the last 30 years, the area experienced a period of extensive transformation as a result of human activity, as well as erosion and deposition. This period is comparable in terms of scale to the periglacial morphogenetic stage. Nival niches were found to be the dominant land feature of various relief generations. Since these forms are of varied size, the nivation processes seem to have played a very important role in the shaping of the local morphology. It can therefore be said that the Monts Dore is a typical high-mountain area with nival morphology dominant above the tree line. This morphology type could be named after the massif the Monts Dore Type. This type could complement the various high-mountain morphology classifications proposed by other geomorphologists. The "Monts Dore" land relief can also be found elsewhere in the other parts of Massif Central, e.g. at Cantal and Mezanc, as well as in Scotland (Cairngorm).
Le cs-137 comme traceur d'évaluation de l'activité des processus de remodelage des versants dans le massif des Monts Dore (Massif central, France)
Autorzy: Kazimierz Krzemień, Wojciech Chełmicki, Mariusz Klimek
Strony: 27-39
Summary - read more..
The paper presents the results of an investigation into the concentration of caesium -137 in selected slope sections made in the Monts Dore (1886 m), a massif in the highest part of the French Massif Central. Existing studies define the area as a high-mountain volcanic massif influenced by marine climate. The land relief is dominated by systems of niche-hollows, sharp erosional edges, flow lines and proluvial cones. Field research conducted in the area in 1995 and 2000 revealed a great variation in the Cs-137 concentration in soils, both within investigated section and overall in the whole massif. Typically, concentration values dropped rapidly with depth. At the depth of 10-15 cm there was just 9-21 percent of the surface concentration value. The principal reason for the variation in the Caesium contamination in the slope cover is the varied intensity of the displacement of the slope material by downwash and erosion. Those processes have a varied impact on the slopes despite the binding grass vegetation. The impact is the greatest along the linear relief forms, such as slope chutes, but there are slope sections subject to very weak degradation or even stable. Overall, the rock-waste transport mechanisms are complex and related to the complex land micro-relief. The typical fine rock-waste found in the area undergoes multiple transport cycles until it reaches the slope foot and is washed into the streams. Short slopes feature less modelling than longer slopes. The field research has shown that contemporary modelling of grass-covered slopes concentrates along chutes, slope hollows and concentrated down-wash zones. Geomorphologic investigation using the caesium method has confirmed a high diversity in slope modelling in the the Monts Dore and that all kinds of chutes and flow lines constitute the most active zones of degradation in the area discussed.
Les transformations contemporaines du lit de la rivičre Couze Pavin en Auvergne
Autor: Kazimierz Krzemień
Strony: 41-51
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The Couze de Pavin river channel system (43.7 km) was characterised as a result of field studies carried out during 1993-2000. The channel is situated in an area of marine climate and complex morphological origins. The Couze de Pavin river basin, raising from 374 to 1824 m a.s.l. and covering 272 km2, is situated in the central part of the French Massif Central. It covers part of the Monts Dore massif and its eastern foreground. The geology contains Hercynian, Tertiary and Quaternary formations, mainly granitoides, metamorphic rocks, marl and limestone, as well as various lavas and pyroclastic formations (Peterlongo 1978). Four types of channels (A through D, Fig. 5) within the Couze de Pavin system have been identified. Each has a certain dominant function related to the whole channel. The Couze de Pavin channel structure corresponds to the main phases of the local morphological development. The maturing of the channel, i.e. levelling out, is typical for a number of reaches related to the main river valley breaks (Fig. 5). There are three main morphodynamic components in the river long-profile. The first one, up to the reach 2, features erosional dissection of the bedrock and transportation of relatively fine material into the broad valley bed. Here, the thicker material is accumulated and finer material transported further down the channel. The second component (reaches 3-5), features lateral migration of the channel and some transportation of fine material, principally suspended matter. The third component, beginning at reach 6, features erosional dissection of a Holocene-age lava stream and downstream transportation of material, mainly up to 20 cm in diameter. This is the component with a typical mountain-river modelling (erosion in it upper course and deposition / redeposition in the lower course). A conclusion might be that the component two is the most un-typical for the entire Couze de Pavin channel. There is a very weak relationship between the three components, what is related to water movement and transportation of dissolved and suspended material.
Les conditions pedogenetiques d'humiferation des sols dans les regions montagneuses. Le cas des Carpates (Pologne) et du Massif central (France)
Autorzy: Stefan Skiba, Marek Drewnik, Rafał Szmuc, Ryszard Mazurek
Strony: 53-60
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A characteristic feature of the mountain soils is the occurrence of a greater amount of the acidic and weakly decomposed organic matter (mor/moder). It usually forms deep humic horizons and greatly influences the formation of the alpine vegetation habitats as well as the direction of the soil forming process. A comparison of the organic matter properties of the mountain soils formed on various bedrock in the Carpathian Mts. (sandstones, Flysch slates - Bieszczady Mts.; limestones, granitoides - Tatra Mts.) and in the Massif Central (volcanic ashes, andezites, dolerites - Monts Dore) (Tab.1). Characteristic features of all the researched soils are as follows: depth of the humic horizons and similar properties of the organic matter (Tab. 2-3). The humic horizons are usually around 30 cm deep with the 30-50% amount of the organic matter in the ectohumic horizons and 10-20% in the endohumic horizons. In the ectohumus horizons fulvic acids prevail over the humic ones. The humification index for the ectohumic horizons is around 0.1-0.4 and it means a considerably small degree of changes of the accumulated organic matter what is characteristic for the humus of the mor/moder type formed in the mountain regions. The organic matter formed in the cool and humid mountain climatic conditions shows properties of the decreasing pace of the humification processes. Regardless the bedrock all the presented soils can be characterised with similar humic horizon properties.
Le suivi de la dégradation des sols dans la zone des itinéraires touristiques: l'exemple du Parc National des Bieszczady
Autor: Ryszard Prędki
Strony: 61-72
Summary - read more..
According to the Protection Plan in the Bieszczady National Park has been realised program of monitoring natural environment damage along the footpaths since 1995. The following categories of degradation were determined: I - unchanged track, II - barely -changed track, III - menaced track, IV - devastated track, V - strongly devastated track (Tab. 1). The main criterion adopted for the categories determination was the width of trail (0,5 m in width - for category I, 0,5-1 m - for category II, 1,0-3,0 m - for category III, 3,0-5,0 - for category IV and above 5,0 m for category V). It was noticed that total length of footpaths sections which were determined to III-V categories considerably increased in 1995-2000 (Fig. 2). The valorisation of tourist trails in the area of Tarnica and Halicz mountain group (the highest in of the Park) according to the five degrees of environment damage in 2001 is presented in Fig. 3-4. Strongly degraded (IV or V categories) there were about 40% of the trails in those area. The totally trampled areas cover as much as 350 m2 in the summit area of the Tarnica top, 260 m2 on the pass between Mt. Tarnica and Szeroki Wierch, 200 m2 - on the Halicz and Smerek tops (Tab. 2). Detailed soil research was carried on the foot trail Wołosate-Tarnica-Halicz (Fig. 1). Three soil profiles (2, 4 and 6) were located directly on the trail other. Other three (1, 3 and 5) were placed in the closest vicinity of the trails. They represented natural and unchanged soil cover. Plots no 7 and 9 were installed in areas where some technical conservation of the trails was done. They represented regenerated soils (excluded from the tourist impact). The physical properties of the researched soils are presented in Table 3. The properties of soils from the tracks were worsened because of tourist impact. There was noticed lesser porosity (n) and air permeability (Pp) in comparison to natural soils. The texture of soil mineral particles in the degraded, natural and regenerated soils is presented in Fig. 5 (microscope photos). It was observed that the water infiltration in congested surface layers of the trampled soils from the trails is very limited (Fig. 6). A lack of porous organic and humus horizons in degraded soils decrease their retention. Water permeability was even several times higher in unchanged soils. The hand penetrometer was used for the measurement of soil cohesion. The penetration resistance (kg*cm-2) of the penetrometer is presented in Fig. 7. The texture of the surface horizons of degraded soils had from 0,6 to 2 bigger the degree of compaction. On the trails where the tourist movement was excluded the soil cover regeneration in possible. It was shown in the research of their physical properties (porosity, bulk density, cohesion, permeability). There is a need of permanent monitoring of the destruction occurring within the footpaths or in places where some conservative actions are undertaken. The consequences of excessive ground trampling along the marked foot trails seem to be the main problem of the Bieszczady Natural Park protection.
L'évaluation géoécologique de la Resérve Naturelle Nationale de Červene Skaly dans les Montagnes de Galmus
Autor: Vladimír Čech
Strony: 73-84
Summary - read more..
The Carpathian Mts. constitute a rare and unique treasure in the highly urbanized and industrialized Europe. In the Slovak Carpathian Mountains many of the protected areas owe this status in order to protect of their karst relief. One of the examples is the National Nature Reserve Červené skaly. Steep slopes of Galmus and of the Poráčsky stream valley with well-preserved associations of forest and rocks, with Poráčsky karst and rare species of wildlife and vegetation are subject to legal protection. The Červené skaly National Nature Reserve is located to the southeast of the Spišská Nová Ves in the easternmost part of the Slovenské Rudohorie Mts., near Krompachy, between the villages Slovinky and Poráč. In the geomorphological division of Slovakia the studied area is part of the Western Carpathian province and Internal Western Carpathian subprovince. On a lower level, it belongs to the Slovenské rudohorie Mts., Volovské vrchy Mts., Hnilecké vrchy Mts. and Galmus Mts. The geology of the reserve consists mainly of the tectonic unit of Silicicum with the complexes of Middle Triassic limestones and dolomites that have predetermined the overall karstic nature of these mountains and numerous karst features. The originally uniform planated surface of the Galmus Mts. was dissected by Poráčsky stream into two separate karst plateaux during the Pliocene/Pleistocene era; the Galmus plateau in the north and Slovinská skala plateau in the south. The Galmus and Slovinská skala represent the mid-mountain planation surface of the Slovenské rudohorie Mts. There is a system of karst relief forms, such as karrens and karren fields, dolines, uvalas, hums, etc. The reserve covers a middle part of Poráčska valley. This area has a fluvio-karst nature and could be defined as a karst gorge or canyon. Numerous karst features are found in the reserve, i.e. caves, rock windows, karst springs and resurgences, etc. The caves tend to be small with poor decoration and have been created by corrosive processes. From the climatic point of view, this area belongs to the cold climatic vertical belt and to the moderately cold one. According to another division (climatic-geographical types) the area of NNR Červene skaly belongs to the type of the mountain climate with minor temperature inversions, humid and very humid air and to the subtype of cold mountain climate (annual sum of temperatures of 10°C and more: 1200-1600, temperature in July: 13.5-16°C, temperature in January: -5°C to -6.5°C, annual amplitude: 19.5-21°C, precipitation: 800-1110 mm per year). The Poráčsky stream, with the basin area of 20 square kilometres, forms the axis of the reserve and the valley. The stream has an allochthonous origin with low inconstant discharge and belongs to the drainage basin of the Hornád river. The Reserve is built on a hydrogeological unit of Mesozoicum with crack and crack-karst permeability. This territory is part of the hydrogeological structure of Poráčska valley with the area of 9,7 km˛ drained by the Poráčsky stream and features numerous springs (mainly karst springs and resurgences). The most abundant springs (Poráč I, Poráč II, Poráč III) are used for water supply via an aqueduct. Just as the rest of Slovakia's territory, the area is situated in the medium zone of a Central European soil and geographical area, particularly in the Cambisol and Luvisol zone with coincident types of the intrazone soils. As regards the soil types, the most widespread are Rendzinas. Other soils include Cambisols, Calcaric lithosols, Fluvisols etc. The relict types of soils are substituted by Terra Rossa. From the geobotanical point of view (natural, reconstructed vegetation) the prevailing part of the reserve on the carbonate rocks belongs to the vegetation unit of limestone beech stands and relict Scottish pine stands. The vegetation of the reserve can easily be divided into two main species: 1) forest species: European beech (Fagus silvatica), European fir (Abies alba), Sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus), Norwegian spruce (Picea abies), Common larch (Larix decidua), Durmast oak (Quercus petraea), (Taxus baccata), Grey alder (Alnus incana), etc.; and 2) rock-cliff species with the unique appearance of relict Scottish pines stands (Pinus sylvestris). Also, many Carpathian endemic species are to be found here. As regards the wildlife conditions one can find typical inhabitants of the Slovak Carpathian Mountains including such rare large mammals as the wildcat (Felis silvestris), wolf (Canis lupus), lynx (Lynx lynx), as well as other species: Cervus elaphus, Capreolus capreolus, Aquila chrysaetos, Falco cherrug, Myotis mystacinus and many others. Based on the physiscal and geographical analysis and using information from detailed field research the author defines physical-geographical complexes at various taxonomic levels. The division is based on land relief, with exposure, rock structure and hydrological conditions as secondary factors. In the past, the area was subject to adverse impact of iron ore mining and air pollution from the Kovohuty Krompachy copper smelting plant. Today, the most significant menace is an illegal logging and cattle grazing within the protected area, forest fires caused by undisciplined tourists, and other unproper behaviour including the daily breaking of the car traffic ban in the valley, walking out of the signed footpaths, etc. The whole reserve and its close surroundings ought to be protected from tourist development and all tourist, sport and other mass events should be banned. The main objective of human activity in the reserve should be the protection of this natural heritage and its preservation for future generations. The author wishes that this becomes priority in the future.
Le climat et les resources climatiques des Carpates
Autor: Anita Bokwa
Strony: 85-96
Summary - read more..
The paper presents the main climatic features of the Carpathian Mts., one of the climatic barriers of Europe. The characteristic presented, however, is based on a rather limited material from the stations within and at the foot the Carpathian Mts. since no organised international climate research programme (like ALPEX for the Alps) has ever been instituted for the whole area of the Carpathian Mts. Tables 2-7 present mean monthly values of the selected climatic components during 1961-1990. Many climatic peculiarities are being observed due to the influence of the ground relief and elevation. Large valleys develop local circulation, while the foehn winds occur in the Tatra Mts. and in the Poprad river and the Tabor river valleys. An inverted temperature and humidity zone featuring increased cloudiness is located the Polish Western Carpathian Mts., at 1,100-1,500 m a.s.l. Consequently, the local values of sunshine duration are the lowest (Orliczowa 1969, Olecki 1989). Hess (1965) elaborated a vertical climatic zoning in Polish Western Carpathian Mts., based on mean annual temperature. Precipitation is one of the most varied of climatic components. Deep within the mountain range and in their eastern part, the valleys and basins tend to remain in a "precipitation shadow"(e.g. Vrfu Omu has much less precipitation than Kasprowy Wierch even though it is much higher). The most potentially dangerous meteorological phenomenon is abundant, flood-triggering precipitation. In the Carpathian Mts., the most disastrous flood was recorded in 1934, while the highest daily precipitation value, 300 mm, was recorded at Hala Gąsienicowa on 30 April, 1973 (Cebulak 1998). Climatic resources for agriculture, transportation, tourism and energy production are highly varied, but rather limited on the whole. The contemporary climatic changes can be observed in the Carpathian foothills, where the mean annual air temperature increased by 1oC in the period 1881-1990 (Obrębska-Starklowa et al. 1994).
Les transformations de la structure du paysage naturel évaluation ŕ partir d'une zone d'étude Carpatique
Autor: Adriana Zlacká
Strony: 97-106
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To characterise a natural landscape structure one must return to the epoch before the human impact and the contemporary climatic conditions. Such the reconstruction is methodologically related to that of the potential natural vegetation cover. In the studied area, the following units of the potential natural vegetation cover were mapped: Floodplain foothill and mountainous forests, Oak-hornbeam Carpathian forests, Oak acidphilic forests, Linden-maple forests, Beech and fir floriferous forests, Beech floriferous foothill forests. The man's activity gradually removed the natural vegetation cover from the land being cultivated. Land use is an effective tool of expressing the structure of the contemporary landscape. It presents objects of the biophysical substance of the contemporary landscape (spatial objects of the earth surface identified according to the external signs of the landscape) (Feranec, Ot'ahel' 1996). Three principal types of land use were identified in the cadastre of Hermanovce nad Topl'ou: artificial surfaces, agricultural lands and forests and semi-natural areas. These units were divided into 5 levels at the scale of 1:10 000. 39 types of areas of the 5th level of the CORINE Land Cover were classified in the study area. Real vegetation cover was mapped in every unit of the 5th level of the CORINE Land Cover with the CORINE Biotopes method describing the species composition of plant associations. Assessment of the changes of the natural landscape structure was based on a comparative analysis of the spatial differentiation of the natural potential vegetation cover and spatial differentiation of the contemporary landscape structure and on the comparative analysis of the real vegetation (species composition of the individual biotopes) with the structure of the potential natural vegetation, that would occur on the studied area if there was no man's impact.
Les problčmes transfrontaliers polono-slovaques. Plusieurs enjeux ŕ prendre en compte
Autor: Danuta Ptaszycka-Jackowska
Strony: 107-120
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The paper is based on a Concept Study of Spatial Management Along the Polish-Slovak Border (Studium kierunkowe zagospodarowania przestrzennego obszaru wzdłuż granicy polsko -słowackiej), published in 1999-2001 by two collaborating teams from Poland and Slovakia under the Polish-Slovak Inter-governmental Commission for Cross-border Co-operation. The diagnostic and concept work focused on identifying those features and characteristics that both are/should be covered as part of the Polish-Slovak cooperation and are specifically important in the management and functioning of the national border zone. Taken into consideration for the purpose of the analysis, assessment and the final concept were: the population, settlement, environment, cultural heritage, technical infrastructure, water resources and management. The paper presents the key cross-border issues (item 1) and their spatial extent identified under the above mentioned topics (Fig. 1). By looking at spatial-functional relationships between Poland and Slovakia (item 2), a cross-border region was identified and characterised. Solutions for the principal issues were outlined on an area by area basis (item 3), including the potential areas for cross-border cooperation as identified in the Concept Study (item 4, Fig. 2).
Le Beskid Śląski: une montagne touristique
Autorzy: Daniel Ricard, Eric Bordessoule, Pierre Couturier
Strony: 121-133
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The Beskid Śląski mountains stand on the western extremity of the Polish Carpathians. It consists of medium-elevated mountains, rarely exceeding 1,000 metres, and centred on the upper part of the Vistula valley. This massif shows a certain number of specificities within the scope of the Polish Carpathians and, more generally, of the European mountains. These are, first of all, densely populated mountains, both in the lowest parts of river valleys and in their highest parts (Istebna, Koniaków). Then, it is an area marked by protestantism which is a specificity worth being noticed in Poland. Last but not least these mountains show traditional but diversified activities, where agriculture is rather marginal. The article insists upon this diversity, with particular stress on tourist activities. During the Communist period, the Beskid Śląski mountains remained a natural region in spite of the quick development of the mining fields and industy. The goverment's policy, along with the public transport development, promoted the considerable commuting of highlanders to work in Katowice and other Silesian cities without leaving the mountains. Moreover, the Beskid Śląski became important tourist area with: water cures (Ustron), training centres for sportsmen and holiday centres belonging to various enterprises (mines, industrial plants, etc.). Natural environment has changed since 1989, but the Beskid Śląski still remains attractive tourism region with diversified activities. A part of the employees that had been made redundant in Katowice area have come back to settle down there. The tourist industry has been partly reoriented so as to meet the evolution of the demand (farm touring, privatisation of the buildings of big firms). Finally, the area knows a large demand for buying plots of land or building country houses.
Les transformations de l'aménagement du territoire dans le Beskide de Silésie depuis 1989
Autor: Mirosław Mika
Strony: 135-144
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After 1989, the transformation of the tourist development of the Beskid Śląski Mts. was closely related with the general transformation of the economic and political system in Poland. Just as in other economic areas, private sector with its superior potential in creating an environment conductive to growth took the lead in the tourist business. Local authorities and self-government play an important role in inspiring such activity and ensuring proper conditions for further course and pace of tourist function development. The chief factors influencing the transformation of the tourist infrastructure of the Beskid Śląski Mts. after 1989 are as follows: - a shift in ownership of accommodation base; - modernisation and upgrading of the accommodation services; - increased number of catering establishments; - new sports and leisure facilities constituting tourist attractions; - new pension development; - extensive second-house development; - introduction of marketing and promotion by accommodation establishments and local government. One of the basic effects of the socio-political transformation of Poland was the privatisation of holiday centres run by state-owned enterprises. In 2001, 177 of 229 (79.7%) such centres existing in the area in 1989 changed their ownership. Four all-year and 14 season-operated tourist centres were closed causing the job number reduction. Compared to late 1980s, the number of employees in such centres dropped by ca. 55 %, with 70-80% in some extreme cases. National health care system reorganisation combined with changes in financing of balneological services resulted in lower patient turnout at spas. The accommodation base privatisation and the development of private lodging base changed the ownership structure of tourist accommodation between 1989 and 2001 (Fig. 2). Currently, the bulk of accommodation is provided by the private sector both in terms of establishments (90%) and beds (91.2%). During 1989-2000 period, the accommodation base in the Beskid Śląski Mts. grew by 4.1% from 29,486 to 30,679 beds. The freedom of business had also an impact on the number of various bars and catering places. During the discussed period, the number of such the facilities grew to 274. The 1990s also brought about a boost in capital projects in infrastructure accompanying tourism. Faced with reduced state-managed tourism, local authorities need to broaden their offer by building new sport and recreation facilities, as well as retrofitting and expanding the existing ones. Currently, one of the most popular and fastest growing forms of leisure in the region are second homes. They constitute the main (and sometimes the only) factor of the tourist function development, particularly in villages with poor accommodation base. During 1990s, national regulations on the protection of natural environment helped in achieving a significant progress in building municipal waste disposal and neutralisation facilities. Local authorities are allowed to decide themselves in this domaine.
Les villes des Carpates Polonaises ŕ l'époque de la transition socio-économique de la Pologne
Autor: Zygmunt Górka
Strony: 145-151
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With the urban population estimated at just 40 percent, the Carpathian Mts. constitute a weakly urbanised part of Poland. The largest of the region's 60 towns and cities is Bielsko-Biała with nearly 180,000 inhabitants in 2000; the smallest towns have a population of less than 2,500. Following an administrative reform of late 1990s, the Carpathian Mts. no longer have any town of provincial capital status and just 20 seats of the middle tier of Poland's administrative division known as the powiat. Thus the mountains are managed by authorities located outside of the region, in the city of Cracow and the towns of Katowice and Rzeszów. Overall, the region is displaying a positive demographical growth specifically in nearly all Carpathian towns. While the few exceptions, notably that of Bielsko-Biała, to the overall trend recorded lower inhabitant figures than in 1988, small towns including most of the powiat centres and spas (Muszyna, Szczawnica, Iwonicz-Zdrój) showed considerable growth rates. After the economic opening of the early 1990s and throughout the transition period numerous private businesses were established. These were mostly units representing retail, wholesale trade, catering, transport, craft, industry and tourism. Some large industrial plants were privatised, also with foreign capital, namely in Krosno (glass industry), Dębica (car tyre production), Sanok and Bielsko-Biała (car industry). Another factor in the development valid in certain towns (Cieszyn, Nowy Targ, Przemyśl) is the border crossings with Slovakia, the Czech Republic and the Ukraine. In the larger urban centres, new secondary schools and even higher educational establishments opened, the latter type in Bielsko-Biała (5) and Nowy Sącz (2). The above mentioned changes are being observed mostly in the western half of the Polish Carpathian Mts., typically west of the Tarnów - Nowy Sącz line, and along the northern reaches, nearer to the provincial capitals. The eastern part is still underdeveloped - its towns smaller and the local economic activity weaker. Even there, however, some towns and rural areas are beginning to benefit from tourism.
Politique urbaine et marginalité des villes auvergnates
Autor: Franck Chignier-Riboulon, Nora Semmoud
Strony: 153-170
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Auvergne has been usually treated as an underdeveloped part of France, with cities showing an economic/social stagnation, being situated within the region rural, backwarded and emigrative. The authors present in their paper new opportunities for those cities, connected with modernisation of the transport infrastructure / highways, expressrailway lines/, rehabilitation of historic cores transformed into animated public urban spaces and interesting initiatives of local authorities and inhabitants. In this social/cultural reconstruction, the role of various regional actors is considerable. The best example of this progrese is that of Aurillac, where the international festival of street theatres made this city widely know. Another solution can be the modern industry, like that in Toulouse, in southern France. Therefore the old marginality and exclusion can be overcome.
Les populations des montagnes du monde: répartition et systčmes de peuplement
Autor: Laurent Rieutort
Strony: 171-183
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50 years after J. Staszewski,s research, the weight of mountain population worldwide has increased, rising from 8% to 15% of mankind and now representing almost 800 millions people. Since 1945, population growth has been impressive indeed, particularly on the tropical highlands showing a demographic transition both late and vigorous. Global density in mountain area is close to 20 inhab./km2, or half the world average but with strong spatial disparity. Besides, despite undeniable delay, the expansion of mountain towns remains a major phenomenon. Such changes in population systems introduce new relations with lowland regions.
La situation démographique des Carpates au tournant des XXe et XXIe sičcles
Autor: Maria Soja
Strony: 185-192
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In the paper the author presents changes in the population of the Carpathian Mts. during 1978-98, that of the transition of Poland from the centrally controlled ("Communist") economy to market economy, against the general demographical condition of the country. The Polish Carpathian Mts. form a mountainous region in the south-eastern part of Poland, covering some 19500 km2, along the borders with the Czech Republic and Slovakia in the south and the Ukrainian border in the east. The demographical dynamics of the rural population in Poland showed the population number growth in all the regions of the country in the 50s, and the general decrease in the 70s. During the last decade of the 20th c., in western Poland the increase of the rural population number was observed, its continuous growth in the Carpathian Mts. - and the depopulation of the countryside in the eastern part. The discussed region displayed a positive demographical trend during the last 50 years (Fig.1). The Carpathian Mts., covering 6 percent of Poland's area, accounts for 11 percent of its rural population. Although the decrease of the rural population is typical for the contemporary stage of the socio-economic development, in the Carpathian Mts. the trend is reverse. The demographical growth of this region is mostly due to the high natural increase (Fig. 2). According to the three-stage model of the demographical transition, Poland is situated at the end of the 3rd stage while the Carpathian Mts. are close to this end. If one chooses the 4-stage model, the most often cited one (Holzer J.Z., 1999), Poland is near the 4th stage end, while the Carpathian Mts. are in its beginning (Fig. 3). It means that the demographical processes of the Carpathian Mts. are 10 years behind those for the whole nation - i.e. the natural increase rate of 4.5 percent was recorded in the Carpathian Mts. at the end of the 90s, while in Poland - in 1989. The scope of the demographical change in the rural zones of the Carpathian Mts. can be shown by the comparison of the 3-year average of the natural increase elements (Fig. 4). Their level fell considerably - that of a negative migration balance was decreased nearly 10 times, the natural increase rate - did hardly three times. The negative migration balance reduction was greater and faster than that of the natural increase. The smaller spatial mobility of the population is observed both in the Carpathian Mts. and in the whole of the country. The demographical changes caused by the socio-economic transition are different than those observed in Poland and in the Carpathian Mts. before. Their scale had not been predicted by demographers, who hoped that the total population number in Poland would amount to some 40 million, or - after adjustments - 38 mln. in 2030 (Prognoza ludności... 2000). In West-European countries, such the changes were observed several decades ago - in Belgium, Germany or France, eg. in Auvergne. If one compares the demographical processes in both the regions, those of the Carpathian Mts. and Auvergne, one will notice the differences in the natural movement level and similar trends in the migrations during the last 30 years. Auvergne has been the immigrative region (Soja M., 1999), while in the Carpathian Mts., which were the area of the considerable outflow of the population, only the first immigrative zones can be found.
Les sanctuaires de la Vierge Marie et les pčlerinages dans les Carpates Polonaises
Autor: Izabela Sołjan
Strony: 193-205
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The article aims at presenting the network of Our Lady's worship centres on the territory of the Polish Carpathians. There are currently 90 sanctuaries of Our Lady, located on the territory of five dioceses. Those include centres founded in the 17th and 18th century, due to relation to the worship of miraculous images popular across Europe in this epoch. The end of the 18th century marked, both in Poland and in Europe, a certain crisis of the post-Trent Baroque religiousness, characterised by the considerable development of this worship. The new ideas of the Enlightenment did not encourage any further development of this type of worship. In Poland other factors had a negative influence on those centres: the loss of independence and the repressive policy of the occupiers. In the case of the Carpathian centres, the repressions which proved most harassing were those introduced by the Austrian Emperor Joseph II, and directed especially against the monasteries. However, in the second half of the 19th century, the first symptoms of the revival of worship could be observed in many Our Lady's sanctuaries. Together with the regaining of independence - often ascribed to the support of Our Lady, the Queen of Poland - the worship of Our Lady intensified, and these worship developed again. Another crisis of these centres occurred directly after the World War II, because of an essentially atheist communist ideology. The crisis was also overcome, already in the mid-1960s, and since then a strong development of the worship of Our Lady has been recorded. In the analysed territory it has been manifested by: many coronations of images of Our Lady, the establishment of new sanctuaries and the revival of worship in many old centres. Among 90 sanctuaries registered in the Polish Carpathians, that in Kalwaria Zebrzydowska became the international centre, the national rank was awarded to the sanctuary of Our Lady of Fatima in Krzeptówki, five centres were classified as supra-regional ones (Kalwaria Pacławska, Tuchów, Dębowiec, Ludźmierz and Wiktorówki), twenty-four - as regional centres, while the rest (59 centres) plays role of local centres. Kalwaria Zebrzydowska is the basic Carpathian sanctuary, the second greatest in Poland, after that of Jasna Góra in Częstochowa. It receives about 1 million visitors every year. The popularity of the given centre depends on its character related to Our Lady and the Passion, a tradition sometimes dating back to several hundred years, ownership of the grace-awarding image of Our Lady, already crowned in the 19-th century, and the religious ceremonies which take place.
Tradition et mutations contemporaines de l'élevage ovin en Slovaquie
Autor: Tatiana Mintalova
Strony: 207-218
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The author deals with the development in the number of the sheep in Slovakia from the Neolithic Age until the present. This long period was divided into several stages. Sheep are the oldest domestic animals. The most famous excavations documenting it date back to Neolithic settlements is in Lužianky and Mlynárce. After the arrival of Slavs the sheep were bred to satisfy human needs. At the beginning of the 8th century sheep outnumbered other animals at 7:1. In the Middle Ages sheep farming rapidly expanded as a result of shepherd colonisation and caused the development of the processing industry. Under the Habsburg Empire, especially at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, sheep farming began to show a rapid decline. This decline continued until 1930s. The state adopted then regulations and measures to promote sheep farming. In fact the gradual regeneration started thanks to economic and material measures introduced after the World War II. During 1949-1989 period many attractive sheep products were produced and large sheep farms were developed. This development marked however significant fluctuations. After the changes of the political and economic system after 1990 sheep breeding faced various complications. In independent Slovakia the decrease of the sheep number was observed again. But this branch of agriculture is promoted in the Carpathians, especially in the foothill and mountain areas, in accordance with the concentration, specialisation and co-operation in the agricultural production.
Les monts métallifčres slovaques
Autor: Daniel Ricard
Strony: 219-228
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The Slovakian Metalliferous Mountains lie at the heart of the mountain region of the Slovakian Republic. These are medium-elevation mountains (1,476 m), built of old rocks (granite, gneiss, schist), covered by younger volcanic and sedimentary formations. These mountains were colonized by Slav communities from the fifth-sixth centuries. They were mainly disrupted by the arrival of German settlers in the 13th century, and then became the mining and industrial ones, urbanized and commercial. The mining production reached a peak in the 15th century, then experienced a sharp decline in the nineteenth century due to the exhaustion of the ores. Emigration became then very strong, especially to the United States. The communist period was marked by the collectivization of the land and a vigorous programme of industrialization (the vast industrial complexes). Today, the region still shows a considerable crisis. The agricultural potential is rather low, collective farms have badly taken the transition towards free market, while there are practically no individual farms. The crisis is the deepest in industry. The large industrial complexes considerably reduced the number of employed. This area suffers from its geographic location in the east of the country, and shows unfavourable specialization in military industry. The tertiary sector is underdeveloped. Moreover, the integration of the Gypsy minority is particularly difficult.
Le développement du parc hôtelier ŕ Cracovie dans les années 1990-2000
Autor: Katarzyna Rotter
Strony: 229-239
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During 1990-2000, Cracow experienced considerable change of its hotel base as a result of the economic and political transformation of Poland initiated in 1989. Aimed to introduce market economy and political democracy, the reforms brought about significant legal changes, spread of entrepreneurship, opening up to international relationships, competitive market and other changes in the economic environment. With the fall of the barriers to economic growth inherent in centrally controlled economy the new economic structure began to change towards a model typical for the developed capitalist countries. Since the early 1990s, the Cracow hotel infrastructure has been undergoing a multidimensional transformation. Processes involved include: - growing of the hotel base as new establishments added to the service potential of the hotel base; - spatial deconcentration through placing new projects in city areas previously without hotels (including peripherial residential areas and brownfields); - privatisation of hotels as a result of new private hotels being established, "re-privatisation" of once nationalised property and privatisation of State owned companies leading to deep changes in the hotel ownership structure; - deconcentration of the hotel market as a result of increasing number of hotel operations and ownership transformation of the existing companies that in turn lead to the erosion of position of companies that dominated the Cracow hotel market before 1990.
Les espaces domestiques, lieux privilégiés de la territorialisation urbaine? Des townships de Durban aux quartiers ouvriers de Clermont-Ferrand
Autor: Hélčne Mainet-Valleix
Strony: 241-250
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Even if they are not well studied, domestic spaces are privileged field to analyse dialectic links between spaces and societies: open/closed, internal/external, private/public. They are places for individual and institutional strategies, of memory and identity, of patrimony. From Durban (South Africa) to Clermont-Ferrand (France), domestic places of working class inhabitants have been analysed. Homes have been designed by municipal authorities or by the enterprise (Michelin), imposed to their inhabitants as tools of social control, according to impose social and family models. Those imposed spaces have been "domesticated", physically and symbolically appropriated through changes and transformations. They become differentiated spaces, with different uses and social status for each room. These domestic spaces become places of memory, incarnating the social and family history and identity, heritage to transmit. They are an urban territory, first level of urban appropriation for rural populations, sometimes foreigners, whom urban practices and representations are often fragmented. They are place for security, emotional and material investments in the living area as well as in the city.
La coopération dans le domaine de la géographie entre l'Université Blaise Pascal et l'Université Jagellonne pendant la période 1997-2002
Autorzy: Katarzyna Rotter, Daniel Ricard
Strony: 251-253
The cooperation between University Blaise-Pascal and the Jagiellonian University of Cracow in geography, 1997-2002
Autorzy: Katarzyna Rotter, Daniel Ricard
Strony: 255-257
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The paper presents the history and results of cooperation between the Geography Department of the University Blaise Pascal of Clermont-Ferrand, France and the Institute of Geography and Spatial Economy of the Jagiellonian University of Cracow, Poland, during 1997 - 2002. In particular, the paper presents the implementation of the cooperation programme signed by representatives of both parties in 1996, as well as the overall strands in this relationship.