Prace Geograficzne, z. 125

Redaktor: Mika M.
Rok wydania: 2011
Język publikacji: polski

ISSN 1644-3586

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Autor: Mirosław Mika
Strony: 7
Cechy i kierunki urbanizacji turystycznej na Słowacji - przykład stacji narciarskiej Donovaly
Autorzy: Peter Čuka, Bohuslava Gregorová
Strony: 9-18
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The article describes processes of recreational urbanization on the example of the important recreational centre Donovaly in Slovakia. The aim of the article is to review these processes by verification of historical and geographical analyses and by field research. The article also accentuates some qualitative characteristics. In the last two decades, the following four fundamental factors contributed to the formation of the phenomenon, which can be specified as the recreational urbanization in Slovakia: 1) Great ambitions to attract foreign tourists to the most attractive recreation centres - especially to spa centres, to the Vysoké Tatry mountains and also to the recreation centre Donovaly. These ambitions effectuated, besides management activities, an especially intense development of infrastructure and superstructure of tourism. 2) Some recreation centres aimed not only at an increase of number of tourists, but also an increase of number of residents. This aim was to be performed by support of residence, by building apartment houses that were supposed to be something between a flat and a residence and which could be suitable for recreational rental. 3) In 2009 (before the financial crisis), there was another factor of recreational urbanization: investments in tourism projects by big investment corporations. Corporations like J&T and Penta changed their investments areas from financing industry projects (in the 1990's) to tourism projects, like financing business centres in metropolitan areas, spa projects etc. (e.g. reconstruction of spa Brusno, Tatry mountain resorts s.r.o.). 4) The last, but not irrelevant factor of recreational urbanization is the establishment of city status for the recreational centre Vysoké Tatry. The city status from 1990 was enhanced by a status of spa. The town Vysoké Tatry became formally a city and completed the process of "formal recreational urbanization" in Slovakia.
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Celem artykułu jest przedstawienie zjawiska urbanizacji turystycznej na obszarze słowackiego ośrodka turystycznego Donovaly. Kształtowanie się turystycznych struktur przestrzennych w rezultacie procesu zagospodarowania wsi na cele turystyczno-rekreacyjne w XX w. omówiono na podstawie wyników badań terenowych i kartograficznych studiów porównawczych. Rezultaty badań podkreślają złożoność zjawiska urbanizacji turystycznej na analizowanym obszarze, ukazują także jej charakterystyczne cechy ilościowe i jakościowe.
Uwarunkowania wykorzystania dóbr kultury przez turystykę po roku 1989 na obszarach górskich - przykład Kotlin Jeleniogórskiej i Kłodzkiej
Autor: Magdalena Duda-Seifert
Strony: 19-35
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The aim of the article was to define and evaluate the importance of different conditions influencing the use of cultural monuments by tourism. The case regarded was the example of residential complexes in such specific areas like intramontane basins. Residential complexes were meant as complexes including both palace and park and also buildings with rural economy functions. This sort of rural complexes seems to have the highest potential for tourism functions, because they comprise not only the monumental character and beauty of the palace itself, but also the surrounding landscape, which can be used for recreation and rest, as well as of the additional buildings, which can also be turned into some new tourism functions (i.e. horse-riding, restaurant, local craft centres). The chosen basins - Jeleniogórska and Kłodzka, located in the Polish part of the Sudetes Mts constitute interesting study areas because they used to be transit regions for merchants and started to serve as places for settlement already long time ago. However, it was the Kłodzka Basin which offered better amenities. This is also the area where older palaces survived (tab. 1, 2). It was only in the 19th century that the Jeleniogórska Basin caught the attention of Prussian aristocracy, being the area located at the foot of the highest mountains in the country. This was why they built their residences in this area, which together with large parks form complexes of unique beauty in Europe. The results of the study indicate that the most important factor influencing tourist use of those complexes seems to be the change of the political and socio-economic system in Poland after 1989, which enabled private owners to buy architectural monuments and, on the other hand, created the demand for luxury hotels located in such buildings. Another important factor was the potential of the monuments themselves, their number and artistic values. And the last factor seems to be the existence of tourist regions, which means that there is already existing steady inflow of tourists who can be attracted by new products within the region. The factors that were defined as less important in the specific case of Lower Silesia were the following: the state of preservation of monuments (because most of them were in same disastrous conditions), landscape values and accessibility of complexes.
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W artykule omówiono problematykę współczesnych uwarunkowań wykorzystania dóbr kultury na cele turystyczne na przykładzie zespołów pałacowo-parkowych położonych w Kotlinie Jeleniogórskiej i Kotlinie Kłodzkiej. Do głównych czynników decydujących o turystycznym wykorzystaniu tych obiektów należą: mechanizmy wolnorynkowe i zaintersowanie potencjalnych inwestorów branży hotelarskiej, działalność stowarzyszeń i fundacji, wsparcie ze strony krajowych ośrodków promocji, fundusze Unii Europejskiej, a także lokalizacja zespołów, ich stan zachowania oraz wartość artystyczna i historyczna.
Dziedzictwo kulturowe jako czynnik rozwoju funkcji turystycznej - na przykładzie gmin bieszczadzkich
Autor: Małgorzata Durydiwka
Strony: 37-61
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The Bieszczady Mountains are one of the most beautiful regions in Poland. Usually it's their natural values that are emphasized, since the Bieszczady are regarded as the European oasis of feral nature. However, one should keep in mind that, for several centuries, people from various ethnic groups and confessions lived and worked in the region. This multiculturalism left traces in the architecture and art of the region, which undoubtedly makes the Bieszczady region culturally attractive. The author has assessed the cultural attractiveness of gminas (communes) in the Bieszczady. The assessment was based on selected elements of the material cultural heritage, using the method of point grading. The inventory included: monuments of sacral architecture (wooden and brick); places with documented former existence of sacral architecture monuments; monuments of secular architecture; ruins of manors, palaces, and castles; monuments of folk architecture; historic monuments related to industry and technology achievements, as well as places with remains of such objects; historic cemeteries; museums and monuments. The inventory was based on guidebooks (Kłos 2005, Luboński 2006, Orłowski, Taranowski 2008) and web sites (see the list of web sites). Four levels of cultural heritage attractiveness in the gminas in the Bieszczady Mts. have been determined (fig. 2). In terms of the number, differentiation, and attractiveness of cultural heritage monuments, the richest area is the rural area of the gmina of Ustrzyki Dolne (93 points). The next group of gminas with high cultural attractiveness consists of four spatial units: Solina, Baligród, Czarna and Lutowiska. They are characterised by a very similar level of cultural attractiveness, since - according to the criteria used - it is between 52 points in Solina to 57 points in Lutowiska. The least attractive, in terms of cultural heritage, are: the gmina of Cisna (18 points), the towns of Lesko (15 points) and Ustrzyki Dolne (16 points) and the rural areas of the Lesko gmina (22 points). In the case of the gminas in the Bieszczady, the correlation between the cultural heritage attractiveness and the level of the development of tourism function - which is understood as the existence of tourist traffic and tourist-oriented services, and determined by the synthetic measure method with the formula by Z. Zioło (1973) - is unfortunately small. This is particularly visible when the rank method is introduced (table 3), in particular on the example of the gminas with the best and moderately developed tourism function. The types of relationships between the development level of tourism function and the attractiveness of the cultural heritage in the Bieszczady gminas have been defined with use of the distribution of the values of these characteristics. This way, four relationship types have been obtained (table 4); the two most frequent relationship types are defined as type A and type B. Therefore, in the case of the Bieszczady gminas, cultural heritage elements are not an essential factor in the development of their tourism function. The most important factors creating the tourism function in the region are undoubtedly its recreational and winter tourism values. Additionally, the tourism function is enhanced by the existence of spa towns (Polańczyk in the Solina gmina). One should, however, mention that during recreational visits, tourists engage in various activities, also in activities with educational values. The richness and variability of the cultural heritage of the Bieszczady Mountains region may therefore become (perhaps it already is) an important factor helping to develop tourism function in some gminas (e.g., Czarna, Olszanica, and most importantly the rural areas of the gmina of Ustrzyki Dolne).
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W artykule scharakteryzowano zasoby dziedzictwa kulturowego Bieszczadów i na tej podstawie dokonano waloryzacji kulturowej gmin bieszczadzkich. Określono również poziom rozwoju funkcji turystycznej analizowanych gmin i podjęto próbę określenia roli, jaką odgrywa dziedzictwo kulturowe w jego kształtowaniu.
Karpaty Ukraińskie jako region turystyczny - uwarunkowania i możliwości rozwoju
Autorzy: Michajło Hamkało, Nazar Kudła
Strony: 63-75
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Tourist attractiveness of the Ukrainian Carpathians follows their position at the crossroads of central Europe's trade routes, abundance of environmental and cultural assets, as well as the constantly growing rate of investments in the tourist sector. The uniqueness of the region's tourist assets, which underlie the development of the region's holiday and health-resort functions, is the effect of varied natural environment and rich historical and cultural heritage. Statistic data show that the number of tourists visiting the Ukrainian Carpathians in the period from 2005 to 2009 amounted to approximately 1.7 million per year, including 150,000 foreign visitors. The development of tourism is currently considered to be one of the major factors contributing to the socio-economic growth of the entire region. This has been reflected, among others, in the formulation of the strategic objective for the development of the Ukrainian Carpathians, which is understood as actions that aim at achieving financial prosperity of the inhabitants of the region and the preservation of its environmental assets; the objective is to be accomplished through the formulation of efficient territorial tourist system based on the optimal exploitation of the existing tourist assets, material and technical resources of the region, its economic resources and human potential. Tourist assets of the Ukrainian Carpathians make various forms of tourism possible to practice. The forms of tourism that are most prominent in the tourism structure are hiking and trekking, ski tourism, water tourism, cave tourism and rural tourism. Main tourist mountain trails of the Ukrainian part of the Carpathians lead through the highest areas of the mountains, within the massifs of Chornohora, Svydovets and Gorgany. These trails offer such tourist attractions as alpine lakes, original Hutsul culture, unique flora and fauna as well as numerous festivals whose organization is supported by local communities, regional institutions and international foundations. There are a number of ski resorts in the Ukrainian Carpathians, the highest-ranking of which are: Bukovel, Slavske, Dragobrat, Pylypec-Podobovec and Izky, the most prominent is Bukovel. The development of this ski resort was initiated in 2001. Due to large-scale investments made in the following 9 years, it has become one of the most modern resorts of this type in Eastern Europe. Currently, there are 16 ski lifts operating in Bukovel, as well as over 60 kilometres of skiing routes supported by complex tourist infrastructure. Another activity that enjoys popularity in the Carpathian Region is river rafting, organized along the Prut, Dniester, Cheremosh and Black Cisa rivers. Cave tourism is widespread in the mountainous part of the Zakarpattia Oblast, where over 50 caves are explored. The largest and longest Carpathian cave is the Friendship Cave in Romania, whose passages are nearly 1 kilometre long in total. The Ukrainian Carpathians also offer favourable conditions for the development of rural tourism. According to optimistic prognoses, agricultural tourism in the Carpathian Region is likely to become a major services market concentrating approximately 35-45% of total tourist flow in the region. Still, rural population needs considerable support from the state, local authorities and other institutions regarding fund raising, employment support programs, counselling, organization of services or distribution of information and marketing. The development of tourism in the Carpathian Region is a priority. For the Ukrainian Carpathians to be transformed into efficiently organized tourist region, the following actions should be undertaken: numerous investment activities in the tourist sector in its broad understanding; the settlement of legal and ownership issues regarding the provision of tourist services; the routing and rendering accessible of successive mountain hiking trails; and the implementation of projects aiming at renovation and maintenance of many objects of historic value.
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W artykule przedstawiono aktualne warunki rozwoju turystyki w regionie Karpat Ukraińskich. Ocenie podlegały zarówno wartości przyrodnicze i kulturowe, stan zagospodarowania dla różnych form turystyki, jak i działania instytucji państwowych i samorządowych zmierzające do aktywizacji turystycznej i społeczno-gospodarczej miejscowości regionu.
Kierunki i bariery modernizacji ośrodków sportów zimowych w czeskim regionie turystycznym "Beskidy"
Autor: Jan Havrlant
Strony: 77-93
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The article presents contemporary problems of the development of winter tourism and modernization of ski resorts in the Czech Beskids. Based on survey findings, tourists' opinions are presented regarding the condition of ski infrastructure, the services offered and actions necessary to be taken in order to improve the quality of recreation. Certain conflict situations have also been presented, which are encountered at the stage of planning and undertaking specific actions aiming at development in the sector of ski tourism. The region of the Czech Beskids is functionally tightly connected with the agglomeration of Ostrava, as it constitutes traditional recreational infrastructure for its inhabitants. There are 45 ski resorts located in this region. The highest-ranking resorts, which are of national significance, are the following: Bila, Kohútka and Pustevny. For a number of years, a dynamic development of regional resorts, Velké Karlovice-Soláň and Mosty u Jablunkova, has also been observed. The Bila and Pustevny resorts are located in the central area of the Moravian-Silesian Beskids; Kohútka and Velké Karlovice-Soláň are located in the Javorníky; and Mosty u Jablunkova - in the Silesian Beskids. The resort offering the best skiing infrastructure is the Ski Areál Bila resort. It comprises two ski areas, Bila and Mezivodí, which offer 9 ski lifts, whose total carrying capacity amounts to approximately 6750 persons per hour, and 8 downhill skiing routes, whose total length amounts to 6.2 kilometres. Moreover, there are nearly 60 kilometres of cross-country skiing routes in the area of Bila. Another ski resort found to offer good ski infrastructure is the Ski Areál Kohútka, thoroughly modernized in the 2009/2010 season. This resort is equipped with 6 ski lifts, whose total capacity is 5150 persons per hour, and 9 skiing routes whose total length is 6.6 kilometres. The Pustevny resort offers 9 ski lifts of total capacity of 5100 persons per hour, 3.6 kilometres of downhill skiing routes as well as 46 kilometres of well-maintained cross-country skiing routes. Tourists find the ski resorts in the Czech Beskids attractive and stress their potential to develop under the condition that these resorts are better-equipped with infrastructural facilities. Contemporary tourists seldom express only one reason, such as skiing, for their stay; instead, they expect a wider complementary offer, including relaxation, spa treatments, entertainment, etc. More attention ought to be paid not only to modernization of the basic skiing infrastructure and maintenance of skiing routes, but also to the extension of tourist infrastructure. The most serious social conflicts regarding the development of skiing in the Czech Beskids emerge from the creation of the natural conservation area - the CHKO Beskidy in a part of the region. There are also certain problems related to the ownership status of the land and the safety of utilization of the skiing areas. The Beskids are likely to become a region of international significance. Currently, the rate of foreign tourists coming for long-term recreational stays is relatively low; in the last decade foreign tourists have accounted for as little as a one fifth of hotel guests. Nevertheless, due to the improvement of the quality of skiing infrastructure and the undertaken marketing activities, the Beskid region may gain a more prominent position in the field of international tourism. The key tasks for the Czech Beskids are to revive relations with Poland and Slovakia regarding the modernization and coordination of tourist infrastructure and to cooperate more closely in the development of transborder information system. A condition necessary for proper development is the improvement of the quality of transport infrastructure and accessibility of Beskid recreation resorts. Undoubtedly, the area would benefit from the development of international "borderless" tourist ski resorts which would be located in the Czech-Slovak-Polish border mountain range and connect the resorts in neighbouring countries by ski lifts, e.g. Ustroń (Czantoria), Nydek, Wisła (Soszów, Stożek) and Jablunkov.
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W artykule przedstawiono współczesne problemy rozwoju zimowego ruchu turystycznego i modernizacji ośrodków narciarskich w czeskich Beskidach. Na podstawie wyników badań ankietowych zaprezentowano poglądy turystów na temat stanu bazy narciarskiej, oferowanych usług oraz oczekiwanych działań w celu poprawy jakości wypoczynku. Ukazano także niektóre sytuacje konfliktowe, mające miejsce przy okazji planowania i podejmowania działań rozwojowych w sektorze turystyki narciarskiej.
Ocena atrakcyjności turystycznej stacji narciarskich w świetle zagadnienia ich konkurencyjności - studium porównawcze Szczyrku i Białki Tatrzańskiej
Autorzy: Kinga Krzesiwo, Mirosław Mika
Strony: 95-110
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The dynamic development of ski infrastructure in the Polish Carpathians is changing the existing structure of relationships among ski stations and their hierarchy in the system of tourist reception. Currently, one of the indicators of the stations' functioning is free market competitiveness and competition in the field of incoming tourism. One of the elements fundamental to the formation of competitiveness of tourist localities is their tourist attractiveness. The aim of this study is to present the evaluation of the attractiveness of Szczyrk and Białka Tatrzańska as ski stations in the light of opinions expressed by users of ski areas. The chosen ski stations represent two generations of Polish winter tourism centres in the Carpathians. Both localities also represent different models of functioning of ski tourism sector. Szczyrk is one of the best developed ski stations in Poland. The system of ski lifts and skiing routes within its area was formed in 1970s. In the 2009/2010 season, downhill skiing infrastructure in Szczyrk consisted of 34 ski lifts of total length of 24.1 kilometres and the capacity of 18.4 thousand persons per hour, as well as 31 skiing routes of total length of 41.3 kilometres. The largest ski resort in Szczyrk is Czyrna-Solisko with its 13 ski lifts and nearly 22 kilometres of ski routes, which can be accessed with one ski pass. From the technical point of view, the majority of ski lifts in Szczyrk are low quality T-bar lifts and platter lifts (94.1%). Skiing routes vary regarding levels of difficulty. Merely 10 routes can be accessed by skiers after nightfall, and only approximately 30% of the total length of the routes is equipped with snow cannons. Białka Tatrzańska has had a long tradition of development as a summer-resort village of the Podhale. High dynamics in the development of ski infrastructure in Białka Tatrzańska has been observed in the last decade, when as many as 10 modern ski lifts have been installed, half of which are high quality chair lifts. In the 2009/2010 season, the ski infrastructure was represented by 18 ski lifts with the capacity of 19.6 thousand persons per hour and 17 skiing routes of total length of 10.1 kilometres. Further development of skiing infrastructure in this locality is planned for the coming seasons. The major ski centres in Białka are Kotelnica Białczańska, Bania and Kaniówka. They were opened at the initiative of village residents. The routes offered by these centres are mainly easy and very easy ones and all of them can be accesses with one ski pass. All ski lifts and skiing routes in these centres are electrically lit, and approximately 75% of the total length of the routes is equipped with snow cannons. The specificity of tourist attractiveness of the evaluated ski stations is represented by our respondents' reasons (table 2) for choosing a place to practice skiing or snowboarding. The factors contributing to the choice of Szczyrk are the following: favourable location in relation to the source areas of (ski) tourist flow as well as the well-developed system of routes and ski lifts. In case of Białka Tatrzańska the factors that attract tourists are the following: modern, well-organized system of routes and ski lifts as well as conditions favourable for less experienced skiers, which is an especially important factor from the perspective of family tourism and organization of recreation for children and youth. In case of both stations, there is a diversity regarding skiing abilities of the interviewed subjects. In case of Szczyrk, there are average and experienced skiers, whereas in Białka the subjects are characterized by low and average skiing abilities. Tourists' stays in Szczyrk are mostly short-term and characterized by higher return frequency, as opposed to Białka, which is mostly visited once a year for a few days' stay. The study has confirmed that, irrespective of the objectively existing conditions and their subjective evaluation, an important factor contributing to the choice of place to go skiing is the recommendation of third parties. The presented sets of advantages of the evaluated stations and skiing areas constitute factors shaping their competitiveness; along with their unique characteristics, such as e.g. scenic assets of skiing routes, they form a set of comparative (competitive) advantages in competition and attraction of tourists. On the other hand, all disadvantages and shortcomings worsening the quality of recreation lower the stations' competitiveness.
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Dynamiczny rozwój infrastruktury narciarskiej w Karpatach Polskich zmienia dotychczasowy układ relacji między stacjami narciarskimi oraz ich hierarchię w systemie recepcji turystycznej. Współcześnie jednym z wyznaczników ich funkcjonowania jest konkurencja wolnorynkowa i rywalizacja o przyjazdowy ruch turystyczny. Do podstawowych elementów kształtowania konkurencyjności miejscowości turystycznych należy ich atrakcyjność turystyczna. Celem opracowania jest przedstawienie oceny atrakcyjności Szczyrku i Białki Tatrzańskiej jako stacji narciarskich w świetle opinii osób korzystających z terenów narciarskich.
Główne kierunki i problemy rozwoju turystyki narciarskiej w Republice Słowackiej
Autorzy: Alena Madziková, Radoslav Klamár, Martin Rosič, Ján Kaňuk
Strony: 111-128
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Ski tourism is one of the most prospective kinds of tourism in Slovakia. Favourable physical and geographical conditions of the country have stimulated development of skiing and the creation of ski centres that have become the centres of winter tourism. Because of mass character of skiing, the construction of ski lifts and means of transport, their technical and technological modernizations, as well as the development of services have become important pre-conditions for the development of ski tourism. Ski localities and centres are situated almost all over the territory of Slovakia, but their largest concentration is in northern Slovakia. They are concentrated in nine regions of tourism where also the most important international tourist centres are situated. Not only old ski and tourism centres have been developing, but also new ski centres, the so-called "greenfields" have been created, such as, for example, Valčianska Valley in the Malá Fatra Mountains near Martin. The development of ski tourism causes, undoubtedly, various problems and negative impacts on various spheres: 1. Some ski centres are situated in the protected areas of the Natura 2000 network. The ongoing considerable construction and its extension usually do not comply with regional ecological regulations. Moreover, the construction causes undesirable changes in the physiognomy of the area and leads to the loss of its authenticity (for example, the construction and architectural chaos in the Donovaly centre). 2. Big investment projects in the centres situated in the protected areas are in contradiction with the constraints of nature conservation. That is why the investors try to change the zoning system in these regions. As a response to this, environmentalists, ecologists and foresters show negative attitudes and opinions regarding the investor's intentions and plans. 3. Just like in the Polish ski centres (Mika 2009), there are legal issues concerning the relations between the plot owners and ski-lift service providers in Slovakia. 4. Especially smaller areas (closely connected with mountain hotels) that do not have snow cannons are dependent on snow and weather, which means that during dry winters they cannot operate. 5. Ski centres which obtain considerable grants from the European Union are rather bigger than small. Smaller ski centres therefore suffer from lack of money necessary to maintain their operation. 6. Not only ski tourism but tourism in general and its development are negatively influenced by the world economic crisis. In regard to the modernization of ski infrastructure, large Slovak ski centres are comparable to Alpine centres. The management of these centres endeavours to extend the stay of the tourists in these centres from one-day to longer stays, especially by offering the tourists advantageous tourist packages including ski passes. What is important here, it is the willingness of service providers to cooperate. Tourists' most favourite activities are the visits to thermal out-door and in-door pools situated close to the ski centres, the co-operation with the spa centres, and wellness activities. Additional services are also provided. To attract visitors, the centres of the international importance organize regular events such as sled dog race in the Donovaly Mountains. The main strategy of these centres is to change their character from seasonal to year-round centres like the resorts of Vysoké Tatry-Starý Smokovec, Vysoké Tatry-Tatranská Lomnica or Štrbské Pleso. From the regional point of view, it is important to maintain and support smaller ski centres as the complementary areas to big ski centres. Smaller centres provide especially urban population with peaceful rest and an escape from the civilization stress. The smaller centres have better predisposition for the development of ecotourism which would not be in contradiction with the environmental protection of the country. They can also potentially offer job opportunities for the local inhabitants whose employment in mountain villages is problematic.
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W artykule przedstawiono uwarunkowania, stan rozwoju i najważniejsze problemy funkcjonowania słowackich ośrodków narciarskich. Turystyka narciarska należy do najszybciej rozwijających się form ruchu turystycznego na Słowacji. Baza narciarska jest rozmieszczona niemal na całym terytorium kraju. Jej największa koncentracja występuje w północnej części, gdzie są zlokalizowane największe ośrodki o randze międzynarodowej. Podstawowym warunkiem ich trwałego rozwoju są inwestycje w urządzenia do przewozu narciarzy, modernizacja oraz poszerzenie zakresu usług komplementarnych.
Walory przyrodnicze i kulturowe jako podstawa atrakcyjności turystycznej Beskidów Wschodnich na obszarze obwodów lwowskiego i iwanofrankowskiego (Ukraina)
Autor: Łukasz Quirini-Popławski
Strony: 129-145
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The aim of this article is to identify tourist values of the Eastern Beskids in Ukraine (within the borders of Lviv and Ivano-Frankivsk oblasts). According to field research, natural values are most important for tourism and they are the basis of several forms of tourism. It should be stressed that winter sports developed especially in the last few years. On the other hand, rich and unique ethnography forms a major factor of anthropogenic values, which distinguishes the Eastern Beskids Mts. from the other parts of the Carpathian Mts. Tourism, especially cultural one, develops thanks to the anthropogenic values, mainly in the Pokutia-Bukovina Beskidy Mts. and Sanok-Turka Mts. The development of tourism encounters some serious obstacles, e.g. infrastructural shortages and an increasing number of environmental conflicts. On the other hand, a low level of development is highly valued by foreign tourists, because many mountain regions, e.g. in Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia are heavily invested.
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Celem pracy jest przedstawienie, na podstawie przeprowadzonych badań inwentaryzacyjnych, walorów przyrodniczych i antropogenicznych Beskidów Wschodnich w granicach obwodów lwowskiego i iwanofrankowskiego (Ukraina). Badania wykazały, że walory przyrodnicze, a zwłaszcza krajobrazowe, stanowią główny element kształtujący atrakcyjność turystyczną Beskidów Wschodnich. Z uwagi na bogatą etnografię walory antropogeniczne wyróżniają ten obszar spośród pozostałych części Karpat. Rozwój turystyki napotyka jednak na poważne bariery w postaci braków infrastrukturalnych i pojawiających się konfliktów środowiskowych.
Rozwój i oferta usług turystyki uzdrowiskowej po polskiej i czeskiej stronie Sudetów
Autorzy: Włodzimierz Ranoszek, Krzysztof Widawski
Strony: 147-160
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This article deals with the character and role of spa tourism in the Sudetes region, both in Poland and the Czech Republic. The present state and changes of the spa offer on both sides of the border are described here as well. The differences in the development of the Czech and Silesian part of the Sudetes arose in the middle ages already. The Silesian mineral springs used for curative purposes have been used from the 13th century. The oldest spas (Lądek Zdrój and Cieplice) were built next to them. Then, some other spas appeared and in the 18th century there were also Świeradów, Stary Zdrój, Jedlina Zdrój, Kudowa-Zdrój and Duszniki Zdrój. The Czech spas began to develop later. The oldest one is Janské Lázně which came into existence in the 17th century, next to a spring popular already in the middle ages; the spring in Velké Losiny was used for curative purposes in the 16th century. In the 18th century, Lázně Libverda Spa was created and at the turn of 17th and 18th centuries, Kuks spa existed for some short time. The other spas came into being in the 19th century already with the famous Lázně Jeseník created by the pioneer of hydrotherapy Vincez Priessnitz. The spas on the Polish side are now usually bigger and with richer accommodation. The majority of them are of urban structure. The Czech spas are smaller with the prevailing tourism function. Despite this, the offer of spa treatments there is much richer but their cost is at least twice the price of those treatments in Poland. The accommodation price is as a rule more expensive too. The price differences reflect also the spas standard and accessibility
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W artykule przedstawiono uwarunkowania oraz kierunki rozwoju uzdrowisk położonych po polskiej i czeskiej stronie Sudetów. Dokonano także analizy oferowanych usług ze wskazaniem ich specyfiki oraz cen. Badane uzdrowiska charakteryzują się znacznym zróżnicowaniem pod względem rozwoju przestrzennego i pojemności recepcyjnej. W przypadku ośrodków czeskich funkcja uzdrowiskowo-turystyczna jest zazwyczaj jedyną lub główną funkcją społeczno-gospodarczą, inaczej niż w uzdrowiskach polskich, gdzie dominują inne funkcje miejskie. Istnieją także znaczne dysporoporcje w zakresie poziomu cen zabiegów i innych usług, co odzwierciedla ich standard oraz dostępność i położenie poszczególnych uzdrowisk.
Agroturystyka w Karpatach Polskich
Autor: Krzysztof Szpara
Strony: 161-178
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Agriculture used to be the most vital branch of economy in the Carpathian Mountains. It is particularly significant in the Carpathian Foothills. The importance of the agricultural function decreases towards the south in favour of forestry and tourism (Groch, Kurek 1995). The tourism function is particularly important for the Polish Carpathians, as they have the largest share of areas of the highest value for tourism. Environmental features allow many forms of tourism to develop during the relatively long tourist season (Warszyńska 1985). However, both infrastructure and tourist traffic in the discussed area are very diverse as a result of uneven distribution of tourist values and various tourist traditions (Groch, Kurek 1995). Data from the Main Statistical Office allow estimating that in 2006 there were over 2 thousand agritourism facilities able to accommodate over 22 thousand people in the Polish Carpathians. Yet the data may be considerably underestimated. The most numerous agritourism accommodation facilities are found in the Podhale (particularly in Spisko-Gubałowski Foothills) and in the Beskids and Pieniny Mountains, far fewer in the Carpathian Foothills. Over 50% of accommodation places in agritourism farms are found in the tatrzański (16.5%), nowotarski (15.6%), żywiecki (12.2%) and leski (9.5%) poviats. In the gmina of Bukowina Tatrzańska there are the most - as much as 1869 (8.4%) - accommodation places in agritourism farms (fig. 1). In the Polish Carpathians, agritourism accommodation facilities make just above 40% of rural tourism accommodation, but in the particular regions these values differ greatly from the average (fig. 1, tab. 1). The research shows that the development of the tourism function in rural areas brings many benefits. Tourism is an important source of income for the inhabitants of the country, and thus reduces emigration to urban areas (particularly in the case of young people and women). It is also an important factor in improving the living standards of the rural population (Kurek 1990). Agritourism - a specific case of rural tourism - combines the agricultural and tourism functions of the Polish Carpathians. It offers an opportunity to rest in attractive rural areas and is an important source of financial support for many families. This form of tourism usually develops in an environmentally friendly manner, thus it is also an element of sustainable tourism development in this region.
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Karpaty są jednym z najważniejszych regionów turystycznych Polski. Od wieków rozwijały się na tym terenie różne funkcje. Do najważniejszych należą: rolnictwo, leśnictwo, przemysł, komunikacja i turystyka. Współcześnie szczególne znaczenie odgrywa funkcja turystyczna. Turystyka stanowi ważne źródło dochodów mieszkańców wsi, jest czynnikiem ograniczającym emigrację do miast i wpływa na poprawę warunków bytowych ludności wiejskiej. Celem niniejszego opracowania jest przedstawienie agroturystycznej bazy noclegowej w przestrzeni Karpat Polskich oraz określenie znaczenia agroturystyki dla społeczności lokalnych i dla turystów. Agroturystyka, łącząc funkcję rolniczą i turystyczną, jest ważną formą turystyki z punktu widzenia zrównoważonego rozwoju.
Wybrane warunki rozwoju funkcji turystycznej miast Karpat Polskich
Autor: Joanna Więcław-Michniewska
Strony: 179-196
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Contemporary determinants of urban socio-economic development are often attributed to several factors, which include: urban policy as specified by local governments, local entrepreneurship and legal regulations. These factors may have different effects upon urban development. This development hinges on the various resources available in a region: its environmental, cultural, economic and social elements. The Carpathians are one of the most important tourist regions in Poland, so broadly defined tourism plays a crucial role in the socio-economic development of many mountainous towns. The major aim of this research is to identify the links between towns' spatial structure (topographic elements) and potential tourist development. Also, the author attempts to determine the role of tourism in the Carpathian towns through the lenses of local government policies. This attempt, although based on tourist functions, does not include all the factors local development depends on, nor all t he indicators necessary to fully understand this issue. Only a few selected characteristics of the town development are taken into consideration. Accordingly, this research is also a new approach to the considered topic as viewed from the methodological perspective; many factors derived from settlement analyses were classified and then put together as a whole. In accordance with such an approach it was determined that: 1) towns located in the Polish Carpathians have good prospects to increase their tourist potential; 2) unlike for other towns, the land relief is not a barrier of tourist development here, but rather an asset; 3) local governments are generally aware of the role played by tourist potential in the socio-economic development of their area. Additionally, a very important issue is to plan and implement such actions, which are in line with sustainable development. A need to preserve both natural and cultural resources in the Polish Carpathians is inevitable, if these resources are still to be the main advantage accelerating socio-economic development.
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Współcześnie szeroko pojmowana turystyka odgrywa istotną rolę w rozwoju społeczno-gospodarczym miast. Karpaty należą do najważniejszych regionów turystycznych w Polsce. Celem badań było przedstawienie zależności między warunkami położenia (topograficznymi) a możliwościami rozwoju funkcji turystycznej miast karpackich oraz określenie znaczenia turystyki dla rozwoju badanych miast w świetle działań lokalnych władz samorządowych. Oceny możliwości rozwoju funkcji turystycznej miast karpackich dokonano w oparciu o wybrane czynniki kształtowania ich potencjału turystycznego. Na podstawie przeprowadzonej analizy stwierdzono, że badane miasta dysponują na ogół znacznymi możliwościami w tym zakresie. Ponadto warunki topograficzne terenu, stanowiące z osadniczego punktu widzenia zazwyczaj barierę rozwoju miast na obszarach górskich, okazały się czynnikiem sprzyjającym rozwojowi turystyki. Analizując działania lokalnych władz samorządowych, odnotowano, że w przypadku wielu karpackich ośrodków miejskich wykazują one duże zaangażowanie na rzecz rozwoju funkcji turystycznej jako jednej z funkcji społeczno-ekonomicznych miasta.