Prace Geograficzne, z. 127

Redaktor: Chełmicki W.
Rok wydania: 2011
Język publikacji: mieszany (polski oraz angielski)

ISSN 1644-3586

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Fizyka Ziemi i jej światowe początki w Uniwersytecie Jagiellońskim
Autor: Katarzyna Dormus
Strony: 7-30
Summary - read more..
The 19th century saw the birth of a new scientific discipline: geophysics. Polish scholars played a pivotal role in its creation, with pioneering contributions coming particularly from scientists working in Kraków. Owing to the ambitions of the Jagiellonian University and its understanding of the newest scientific trends and needs, research-friendly conditions were created for two academics of a global caliber: L.A. Birkenmajer and M.P. Rudzki. In 1895 the first academic department in the world devoted solely to geophysics was estabilished at the University. Its creation signaled the birth of geophysics as an independent scientific discipline. Textbooks written by Rudzki, particularly the outstanding "Physics of the Earth", played a key role in fostering the development of several generations of both Polish and German scientists.
Abstrakt - czytaj wiecej...
Fizyka Ziemi, zwana inaczej geofizyką, jest dyscypliną stosunkowo młodą, a początki jej rozwoju jako samodzielnej gałęzi nauki przypadają na koniec 2. połowy XIX w. Na jej przykładzie można zaobserwować proces wykluwania się nowej dyscypliny naukowej od samych jej skromnych początków i przekształcanie się w znaczącą, obejmującą swym zasięgiem ogromny zakres problemów gałąź wiedzy oraz przybieranie przez nią konkretnych form organizacyjnych. W tym kontekście interesująco zarysowuje się historia krakowskiego ośrodka uniwersyteckiego, który odegrał pod pewnymi względami rolę wręcz pionierską. Dzięki ambicjom władz Uniwersytetu, a przede wszystkim ich zrozumieniu dla najnowszych trendów i potrzeb naukowych, pokonując ogromne trudności wynikające z ówczesnego, niezwykle trudnego położenia politycznego i ekonomicznego - stworzono warunki pracy uczonym światowego formatu. Na czoło wysuwają się postacie profesorów L.A. Birkenmajera oraz M.P. Rudzkiego. Ten ostatni jest autorem wielu wybitnych prac naukowych, a przede wszystkim podręczników, na których wychowały się pokolenia polskich i niemieckich geofizyków. Ukoronowaniem tych wszystkich działań było utworzenie w UJ w 1895 r. pierwszej na świecie katedry geofizyki.
Edward Stenz - geograf, wybitny badacz Afganistanu
Autor: Janusz Fedirko
Strony: 31-48
Summary - read more..
Edward Stenz (1897-1956) was a renowned Polish scientist and explorer whose life was closely associated with Afghanistan. He went to Afghanistan before World War II and stayed there for nine years (1939-1948) due to the political situation in Europe. He pursued research throughout the country, which was not easy since Afghanistan had virtually no infrastructure, distances were large and the landscape tough to manage. Stenz left for Asia with a solid background in research techniques acquired at Polish universities. In Afghanistan he found himself in a situation with no educated individuals to rely on. He endured an enormous workload including scientific research, organizational activity and teaching activity. Stenz was a professor at the University of Kabul, where he wrote textbooks and lecture notes for his students. He also published his research results in self-published journals. Stenz supervised the construction of meteorological stations and spent a good amount of his time in the field. He made attempts to help his countrymen during the war. As a good student of the theories published by Poland's best known scientist, Nicholas Copernicus, he tried to make Afghans aware of his accomplishments. He also published in two foreign languages in order to give his research broader international exposure. Stenz identified the climate zones in Afghanistan by doing research in the field of evaporation. Stenz divided Afghanistan into hydrographic regions and made meaningful gains in the area of Afghanistan's tectonics. He designed and founded the Central Meteorological Observatory in Kabul. He was the director of the Observatory for more than a year. His papers on Afghanistan's meteorology, hydrography, geophysics and geo-thermodynamics remain relevant today. The research Stenz performed in Afghanistan was not the only research on his life's list of accomplishments. His research accomplishments include those prior to his travel to Afghanistan and those in the few short years following his return to Poland. His key accomplishment in Afghanistan was the creation of a basis for the development of the environmental sciences in a country with radically different cultural traditions, something he often noted himself. The 1939-48 legacy of Edward Stenz appears to be forgotten today, which is why it is important to remind readers of it.
Abstrakt - czytaj wiecej...
Artykuł dotyczy afgańskiego dorobku naukowego Edwarda Stenza, polskiego przyrodnika, który spędził 9 lat w Afganistanie. Krótki okres życia po powrocie oraz choroba spowodowały, że Stenz nie opublikował wszystkich swych naukowych spostrzeżeń z pobytu w tym kraju. Ten dziś nieco zapomniany uczony, rzadko jest przywoływany nawet w aspekcie polskiej, tak licznej na początku XXI wieku obecności w Afganistanie. Warto zatem przypomnieć jego sylwetkę naukową, zwłaszcza afgański okres jego działalności. Edward Stenz był polskim pionierem badań geograficznych w Afganistanie: hydrografem, meteorologiem, klimatologiem, geofizykiem. Tworzył podwaliny tych dyscyplin naukowych w Afganistanie, co w skrajnie odmiennych warunkach kulturowych łatwe nie było i, mimo ogromu włożonej pracy, trwałych efektów naukowych dla Afganistanu nie przyniosło; kontynuatorzy dzieła polskiego geografa szybko rezygnowali z przedsięwziętego zadania.
The morphotectonic evolution of southern half of Kythira Island (Ionian sea, Greece) during the Quaternary
Autorzy: Kalliopi Gaki-Papanastassiou, Hampik Maroukian, Violeta Kourmpanian
Strony: 49-59
Summary - read more..
Kythira island is located between Peloponnese and Crete along the Hellenic island arc. The morpho tectonic study of this island could provide useful clues about the evolution of this area. The study focused on the southern part of the island where most of the characteristic landforms of uplift are found (terraces, gorges and notches). Large scale geomorphological mapping was performed in order to determine the most significant landforms of the area such as planation surfaces, marine terraces, gorges, knick points, cliffs and notches. It is concluded that the general morphology and evolution of the southern part of the island is depended primarily on the tectonic regime of the area which is exemplified by characteristic landforms in a series of well distinguished eight uplifted marine terraces on the eastern and six in the western part, marine notches and inclined planation surfaces, gorges and knick points indicating a continuous uplift of the island during the Quaternary. Finally, an average uplift rate of about 0.13 mm/yr for the Quaternary period is determined for the study area.
Fluvial processes as a reflection of river sediment transport. Examples from Russia
Autor: Roman S. Chalov
Strony: 61-70
Summary - read more..
Sediment transport is one of the main elements of fluvial processes; and with it fluvial processes themselves are elements of sediment supply into rivers. The amount of sediment transported by a stream is determined by its carrying capacity, which changes in line with spatial and temporal changes in stream hydraulic characteristics. Correlations between them set the conditions for vertical channel deformation. When a riverbed is composed of heavy material, stream carrying capacity is realized due to horizontal channel deformations. The complexity of correlations between fluvial processes and sediment transport is determined by the transport of the latter in suspended and bed load forms, permanent conversions from one form to another in line with changes in stream hydraulic characteristics along and across the river channel, from the high-water to the low-water period versus the water flow in river branches. Sediment load itself and its magnitude determine the development of channel relief forms and the transformation of straight channels to meandering or braided channels. The main role in channel development is played by bed load flow. The ratio of bed load to suspended load determines changes in morphometric channel characteristics and its stability as well as effects the development of channel meanders and river bifurcations. At the same time, it is important to take into account the proportion of suspended and bed load components and their proportion in channel-forming sediment.
Cracow barometric series as a basis for long-term air pressure research
Autor: Janina Bożena Trepińska
Strony: 71-85
Summary - read more..
Monthly and annual series of air pressure in Cracow were produced on the basis of barometric measurements from 1792 to 2005. The site of measurements is reliably homogeneous. Each measurement by the mercury barometer was reduced to air temperature of oC, but a reduction to sea level was not applied, moreover each reading of the mercury position in the barometer was adjusted by a set of constant corrections: the instrumental one and adjustments for latitude and Earth's radius. The historical meteorological station of the Jagiellonian University is located at 220 meters a.s.l. A set of 13 Figures illustrates the time variability and fluctuations of the atmospheric pressure. The range of variability of the mean values can be very large, exceeding 25 hPa in winter months. Additionally, cases of particular changes within 3 and 24 hours have been presented according to data from 1951-2000. Rough criteria for distinguishing such changes allow to find out the most of extreme abrupt pressure drops and rises in wintertime.
Assessment of exposure to air pollution from road traffic: use of air dispersion model CALINE4 at a fine scale in Cracow
Autorzy: Julie Méline, Stanislas Wicherek, Bertrand Julien-Laferriere, Jean-Paul Oudinet
Strony: 87-113
Summary - read more..
This article deals with the road traffic air pollution modeling which is also part of a main multidisciplinary study of health risk characterization untitled: "Air pollution generated by road traffic and childhood asthma in Cracow". Cracow, a city declared as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, constitutes a relevant urban area to study insofar road traffic as a strong anthropogenic source of air pollution. The final aim of the health study is to establish in Cracow the relationship between air quality and the development of asthma among children. We have chosen the air dispersion model CALINE4 and its software interface, CALROADS VIEW, to estimate the PM10 and NO2 concentrations generated by road traffic at 43 key intersections in Cracow during the period 2001-2005. This model is recognized as an international reference in road traffic air pollution modeling. The concentration of traffic and trips in the historical downtown area and the importance of exchanges between the two downtowns of Cracow (historical downtown and Nowa Huta) are the main causes of high air pollution levels from road traffic. Depending on the pollutant considered (PM10, NO2) as well as the density of traffic and the meteorological situations, areas of exposure to air pollution and their potential health effects to the exposed population are quite different in time and in space. The main results show that: 1) Only the NO2 exposure areas reach the residential areas because the PM10 areas of exposure (Avg: 66.8 m SD: ą 48.5, max: 284 m) are quite less extensive than those of NO2 (Avg: 125.4 SD: ą 64.4, max: 381 m); 2) Extension of these two pollutant areas is proportionally related to the density of traffic and is extended in an unsymmetrical way around roads depending on meteorological cases determined by both the Pasquill-Gifford classification and the wind directions. According to our methodology, the validation of estimated PM10 and NO2 concentrations shows that they have been overwhelmingly validated.